Thermodynamics at the microscale: from effective heating to the Brownian Carnot engine

  title={Thermodynamics at the microscale: from effective heating to the Brownian Carnot engine},
  author={Luis Dinis and Ignacio A. Mart'inez and {\'E}dgar Rold{\'a}n and Juan M R Parrondo and Ra{\'u}l A. Rica},
  journal={Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment},
We review a series of experimental studies of the thermodynamics of nonequilibrium processes at the microscale. In particular, in these experiments we studied the fluctuations of the thermodynamic properties of a single optically-trapped microparticle immersed in water and in the presence of external random forces. In equilibrium, the fluctuations of the position of the particle can be described by an effective temperature that can be tuned up to thousands of Kelvin. Isothermal and non… 

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