Thermal radiation produced by the expansion of the Universe

@article{Parker1976ThermalRP,
  title={Thermal radiation produced by the expansion of the Universe},
  author={Leonard Parker},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1976},
  volume={261},
  pages={20-23}
}
I show here that the expansion of the Universe can create particles with a black-body distribution. I give a simple model in which the creation of particles in an initially empty space time leads at very early times to a Friedmann expansion dominated by hot relativistic particles (probably including gravitons) having a black-body spectrum, even before classical thermalising processes have had a chance to act. If the particle creation occurs near the Planck time, the entropy produced is… 
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