Thermal nature of a generic null surface

@article{Dalui2021ThermalNO,
  title={Thermal nature of a generic null surface},
  author={Surojit Dalui and Bibhas Ranjan Majhi and Thanu Padmanabhan},
  journal={Physical Review D},
  year={2021}
}
Dynamical properties of a generic null surface are known to have a thermodynamic interpretation. Such an interpretation is completely based on an analogy between the usual law of thermodynamics and structure of gravitational field equation on the surface. Here we materialise this analogy and show that assigning a temperature on the null surface for a local observer is indeed physically relevant. We find that for a local frame, chosen as outgoing massless chargeless particle (or field mode… 
Kinematics and dynamics of null hypersurfaces in the Einstein-Cartan spacetime and related thermodynamic interpretation
A general geometric construction of a generic null hypersurface in presence of torsion in the spacetime (Riemann-Cartan background), generated by a null vector l, is being developed here. We then

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TLDR
The Einstein equation is derived from the form of black hole entropy together with the fundamental relation $\delta Q=TdS$ connecting heat, entropy, and temperature, and its validity is seen to depend on the existence of local equilibrium conditions.
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