Thermal Contrast in the Atmosphere of Venus: Initial Appraisal from Pioneer Venus Probe Data

  title={Thermal Contrast in the Atmosphere of Venus: Initial Appraisal from Pioneer Venus Probe Data},
  author={Alvin Seiff and Donn B. Kirk and Richard E. Young and Simon C. Sommer and Robert. Blanchard and John T. Findlay and G. M. Kelly},
  pages={46 - 49}
The altitude profiles of temperature and pressure measured during the descent of the four Pioneer Venus probes show small contrast below the clouds but significant differences within the clouds at altitudes from 45 to 61 kilometers. At 60 kilometers, the probe which entered at 59.3� north latitude sensed temperatures 25 K below those of the lower latitude probes, and a sizable difference persisted down to and slightly below the cloud base. It also sensed pressure below those of the other probes… 
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Measurements of thermal structure and thermal contrasts in the atmosphere of Venus and related dynamical observations: Results From the four Pioneer Venus Probes
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Instruments flown on the Pioneer Venus orbiter and probes measured many of the properties of the atmosphere of Venus which control its thermal balance and support its high surface temperature.
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From the Pioneer Venus, as well as the Venera 11 and 12 spacecrafts, data on the chemical composition of the Venus atmosphere from about 700 km to the surface were obtained. In general, reasonable
Radio occultation measurements of turbulence in the Venus atmosphere by Pioneer Venus
As in the cases of Mariner 5 and 10 and Venera 9, the Pioneer Venus radio occultation measurements of Venus show an upper region of turbulence located in the vicinity of 60 km. Estimates of the


Structure of the Atmosphere of Venus up to 110 Kilometers: Preliminary Results from the Four Pioneer Venus Entry Probes
The four Pioneer Venus entry probes transmitted data of good quality on the structure of the atmosphere below the clouds, finding that the atmosphere is nearly isothermal around 100 kilometers (175 to 180 K) and appears to exhibit a sizable temperature wave between 60 and 70 kilometers.
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Orbiter infrared measurements of the Venus atmosphere in the 60- to 140-kilometer region show very small diurnal temperature differences near the cloud tops, increasing somewhat at higher levels. The
Observations of Turbulence in the Atmosphere of Venus using Mariner 10 Radio Occultation Measurements
  • R. Woo
  • Physics, Environmental Science
  • 1975
Abstract In this paper we develop a technique for estimating the outer scale of turbulence in a planetary atmosphere using dual-frequency radio occultation measurements. This technique is based on
Venus Winds Are Zonal and Retrograde Below the Clouds
Winds in the lower atmosphere of Venus, inferred from three-dimensional radio interferometric tracking of the descents of the Pioneer day and north probes, are predominantly easterly with speeds of
Orbiter Cloud Photopolarimeter Investigation
The first polarization measurements of the orbiter cloud photopolarimeter have detected a planet-wide layer of submicrometer aerosols of substantial visible optical thickness, of the order of 0.05 to
Venera 8: Measurements of Temperature, Pressure and Wind Velocity on the Illuminated Side of Venus 1
Abstract Measurements of the temperature, pressure and wind speed in the atmosphere of Venus are reported. These were obtained with the interplanetary station Venera 8, which was the first entry
Electron Observations and Ion Flows from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Plasma Analyzer Experiment
Additional plasma measurements in the vicinity of Venus are presented which show that (i) there are three distinct plasma electron populations—solar wind electrons, ionosheath electrons, and
Observations of small-scale turbulence in the atmosphere of Venus by Mariner 5
Abstract Information regarding small-scale turbulence in the Venus atmosphere is important and desirable because it contributes to our understanding of the atmosphere's circulation. In this paper, we
Infrared Image of Venus at the Time of Pioneer Venus Probe Encounter
An image of the infrared emission from the Earth-facing hemisphere of Venus was obtained at the time the Pioneer Venus probes penetrated the atmosphere, revealing regions of rapidly varying polar features, a solar-related postdawn warm area, and a nonsolar-fixed nighttime warm area.
First Results from the Large Probe Infrared Radiometer Experiment
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