There is no highly conserved embryonic stage in the vertebrates: implications for current theories of evolution and development

@article{Richardson1997ThereIN,
  title={There is no highly conserved embryonic stage in the vertebrates: implications for current theories of evolution and development},
  author={Michael K. Richardson and James Hanken and Mayoni L. Gooneratne and Claude Pieau and Albert Raynaud and Lynne Selwood and Glenda M. Wright},
  journal={Anatomy and Embryology},
  year={1997},
  volume={196},
  pages={91-106}
}
Abstract Embryos of different species of vertebrate share a common organisation and often look similar. [] Key Result We find that embryos at the tailbud stage – thought to correspond to a conserved stage – show variations in form due to allometry, heterochrony, and differences in body plan and somite number. These variations foreshadow important differences in adult body form.
The vertebrate phylotypic stage and an early bilaterian-related stage in mouse embryogenesis defined by genomic information
TLDR
The results demonstrate that the mid-embryonic stage of the mouse is indeed highly constrained, supporting the existence of the phylotypic stage and highlighting the hierarchical aspect of embryogenesis proposed by von Baer.
Vertebrate evolution: the developmental origins of adult variation.
  • M. Richardson
  • Biology
    BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology
  • 1999
TLDR
It is argued here that differences in adult morphology may be generated at a variety of stages, and the phylotypic stage, the developmental hourglass, modularity, and von Baerian divergence are reassessed in terms of these arguments.
Embryonic lethality is not sufficient to explain hourglass-like conservation of vertebrate embryos
TLDR
The results suggest that negative selection by embryonic lethality could not explain hourglass-like conservation of animal embryos, and highlights the potential contribution of alternative mechanisms such as the diversifying effect of positive selections against earlier and later stages, and developmental constraints which lead to conservation of mid-embryonic stages.
Ontogeny and phylogeny of the yolk extension in embryonic cypriniform fishes.
TLDR
It appears that yolk extension ontogenesis is a novel evolutionary, developmental module that has been incorporated into the phylotypic period of certain teleostean lineages.
Comparative methods in developmental biology.
TLDR
It is clear that the application of phylogenetic methodology to developmental data is both necessary and fundamental to research into the relationship between evolution and development.
Haeckel's ABC of evolution and development
TLDR
Haeckel's work is re‐examine and he is seen as the father of a sequence‐based phylogenetic embryology, and his embryo drawings are important as phylogenetic hypotheses, teaching aids, and evidence for evolution.
Comparative Transcriptomics Reveals Distinct Patterns of Gene Expression Conservation through Vertebrate Embryogenesis
TLDR
A phylogenetic comparative approach is used to characterize expression conservation pattern of each gene at each evolutionary node across vertebrates and finds an enrichment of genes exhibiting early conservation, hourglass, late conservation patterns and a large depletion of gene exhibiting no distinguishable pattern of conservation in both microarray and RNA-seq data sets.
Inverting the hourglass: quantitative evidence against the phylotypic stage in vertebrate development
TLDR
It is hypothesize that numerous tightly delimited developmental modules exist during the mid–embryonic period and the high level of timing changes between these modules may be an important evolutionary mechanism giving rise to the diversity of vertebrates.
In search of the vertebrate phylotypic stage: a molecular examination of the developmental hourglass model and von Baer's third law.
TLDR
The molecular results suggest, albeit weakly, that a phylotypic stage (or period) indeed exists and its temporal location, sometimes between the first-somites stage and the formation of the posterior neuropore, was in approximate agreement with the morphologically defined phylotypesic stage.
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