Therapy: Risks associated with chronic PPI use — signal or noise?

@article{Kia2016TherapyRA,
  title={Therapy: Risks associated with chronic PPI use — signal or noise?},
  author={L. Kia and P. Kahrilas},
  journal={Nature Reviews Gastroenterology &Hepatology},
  year={2016},
  volume={13},
  pages={253-254}
}
Chronic kidney disease has joined the growing list (pneumonia, myocardial infarction, hip fracture, Clostridium difficile infections, acute interstitial nephritis, hypomagnesaemia) of putative risks associated with chronic PPI use based on results from an observational epidemiological study. However, the low hazard ratio (<1.5) makes it doubtful that this association is a causal relationship. 
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