Therapeutic tolerance in autoimmune disease.

@article{Rayner2018TherapeuticTI,
  title={Therapeutic tolerance in autoimmune disease.},
  author={Fiona Rayner and John Dudley Isaacs},
  journal={Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism},
  year={2018},
  volume={48 3},
  pages={
          558-562
        }
}
  • F. Rayner, J. Isaacs
  • Published 1 December 2018
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism
Prospects of the Use of Cell Therapy to Induce Immune Tolerance
TLDR
The current panoramic scope of cell therapy for immune-mediated disorders is described, the advantages and disadvantages of different types of cell Therapy are discussed, and novel directions and future prospects for these tolerogenic therapies are explored.
Tolerance induction in memory CD4 T cells is partial and reversible
TLDR
It is found that memory CD4 T cells generated by infection or immunisation survive secondary activation with antigen delivered without adjuvant, regardless of their location in secondary lymphoid organs or peripheral tissues, and data suggest that tolerance induction in memory T cells is partial and can be reversed.
Can Immune Tolerance Be Re-established in Neuromyelitis Optica?
TLDR
Development and implementation of immune tolerance-based therapies in NMO is likely to be an important step toward improving the treatment outcomes of the disease and the antigen-specificity of these therapies will likely ameliorate the disease safely and effectively, and will also eliminate the clinical challenges associated with chronic immunosuppressive therapies.
Low-dose 2-deoxy glucose stabilises tolerogenic dendritic cells and generates potent in vivo immunosuppressive effects
TLDR
It is shown that treatment of mouse bone marrow-derived tolDC ex vivo with low-dose 2-DG (2.5 mM) induces a stable tolerogenic phenotype demonstrated by their failure to engage lactate production when challenged with mycobacterial antigen (Mtb), and that a single subcutaneous administration of 2-GtolDC prevented experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) in vivo.
The Potential of Nanomedicine to Unlock the Limitless Applications of mRNA
TLDR
This review provides a full description of the marketed vaccine formulations and disclose LNPs’ pharmaceutical properties, including composition, structure, and manufacturing considerations, and different types of lipid-based delivery technologies currently in preclinical and clinical development, namely lipoplexes and cationic nanoemulsions.
Immunomodulatory effects of polysaccharides from marine algae for treating cancer, infectious disease, and inflammation
TLDR
The chemical composition of the algal polysaccharides, namely alginate, fucoidan, ascophyllan, and porphyran are discussed and their applications in the treatment of cancer, infectious disease, and inflammation are summarized.
Randomised clinical trial: a placebo‐controlled study of subcutaneous or intradermal NEXVAX2, an investigational immunomodulatory peptide therapy for coeliac disease
TLDR
Nexvax2 contains three gluten‐derived peptides, intended to tolerize coeliac disease patients to gluten, and pharmacokinetics and rapid onset of effect suggest that subcutaneous delivery may also be effective.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 23 REFERENCES
Prospects for therapeutic tolerance in humans
TLDR
Reliable biomarkers of tolerance are urgently needed to provide objective measurements of the effectiveness of tolerogenic therapies, and to allow intelligent immunosuppressant withdrawal in patients whose autoimmune disease is stable.
How do monoclonal antibodies induce tolerance? A role for infectious tolerance?
TLDR
The "civil service model" is proposed to explain how tolerant T cells might interfere with the responses of competent T cells in such a way as to render them tolerant.
Peptide Immunotherapy for Type 1 Diabetes—Clinical Advances
TLDR
Modulation of the pathogenic T-cell response with antigen-specific peptide immunotherapy offers the potential to restore the immune homeostasis and prevent further tissue destruction.
Translating tolerogenic therapies to the clinic – where do we stand?
TLDR
This review examines the key studies and novel research directions in the field of immunological tolerance and centers on the facilitation of donor-cell mixed chimerism in the transplant recipient with the use of bone marrow or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Type 1 diabetes immunotherapy using polyclonal regulatory T cells
TLDR
A phase 1 trial of adoptive Treg immunotherapy to repair or replace Tregs in type 1 diabetics was reported, and the therapy was safe, supporting efficacy testing in further trials and support the development of a phase 2 trial to test efficacy of the Treg therapy.
Tolerance signatures in transplant recipients
TLDR
Encouraging progress is being made in identifying tolerance biomarkers that predict or identify individuals who exhibit tolerance to a transplanted organ, and it will be important to validate these markers in larger studies of transplant recipients undergoing prospective minimization or withdrawal of immunosuppression.
A pilot study of combination anti-cytokine and anti-lymphocyte biological therapy in rheumatoid arthritis.
TLDR
It is reported, for the first time in man, immunotherapy with a combination of an anti-cytokine and anAnti-T-cell reagent in RA, and an unusual first-dose reaction was witnessed but there were no significant infectious complications.
Rapid induction of clinical remission by low-dose interleukin-2 in a patient with refractory SLE
TLDR
A rapid and robust reduction of disease activity in parallel with a remarkable expansion of the Treg population by low-dose IL-2 therapy in one patient with a long-term history of SLE and increased disease activity refractory is reported.
CD4 antibody therapy in systemic lupus erythematosus.
TLDR
CD4 monoclonal antibodies are effective in animal models for systemic lupus erythematosus, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, myasthenia gravis, and multiple sclerosis.
...
...