INTRODUCTION Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a chronic debilitating disease and premalignant condition of the oral cavity and is a serious public health issue in India and many parts of the world. The treatment is still elusive and empirical because of poorly understood etiopathogenesis, which is believed to be multifactorial including areca nut chewing, ingestion of chillies, genetic and immunologic processes, nutritional deficiencies, and many others. The present investigations was focused to understand the possible therapeutic interventions of anti-OSF agents in arecoline induced experimental in vitro model of OSF and clinical application of these anti-OSF agents in the restoration of various grade of the disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS The 127 subjects were selected from patients who visited the OPD of Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dental Sciences, K.G. Medical University, Lucknow. Further the subjects were divided in two groups on the basis of clinical examination. Group-1 subjects showed presence of fibrosis bands in the labial and/or buccal mucosa, loss of elasticity, difficulty to open the mouth and had a habit chewing areca-nut in some form. Group-2 subjects had no habit of chewing areca-nut, were apparently healthy with no mucosal disorder. The samples were collected and were immediately transported to Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow, for isolation and cultivation of primary cultures of mucosal fibroblast cells. Then isolation and cultivation of oral mucosal fibroblast, identification of non-cytotoxic doses of arecoline, real time PCR, immunocytochemistry, cytokine determination in culture cells, western blot analyses, functional activity of collagenase, lysyl oxidase enzyme activity, collagen beads assay, cyclooxygenase (COX-2) expression analysis was done. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS This study, shows that the reduction of phagocytic cells was strongly related to the arecoline levels in fibroblast culture when we exposed arecoline to normal oral mucosal cells (NOMC) and cells from OSF patient. An enhancement of phagocytic cells was observed following the pre exposure of cells to 1 μM dexamethasone, a glucocorticoids, In this study, histologic evidence is presented which supports the finding that COX-2 expression is upregulated in OSF specimens compared to normal oral submucosal cells. Strong immunostaining for COX-2 was detected in arecoline exposed NOMC and cells from OSF patient. Areca nut extract up-regulates prostaglandin production, cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA and protein expression of human oral keratinocytes. The number of phagocytic cells and phagocytic activity in cultured human oral fibroblasts from OSF site was lower than the fibroblasts from the normal regions of the same person.