This study was performed to investigate the effect of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) immunoapheresis on lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] reduction in patients with heterozygous and homozygous familial hyperlipidemia (N=16) and insufficient response to lipid-lowering agents. By desorption of approximately 5,700+/-500 mL of plasma, a mean reduction in total cholesterol of 62% (P < .001) and in LDL-cholesterol of 70% (P < .001) was achieved. Lp(a), which was elevated at study entry in seven of these patients (82.1+/-34.3 mg/dL; range, 48 to 148 mg/dL), was reduced during the initial LDL-apheresis procedure by 74.8%+/-14.1% (P < .001). Long-term apheresis treatment performed at weekly intervals resulted in an mean reduction in Lp(a) pretreatment values to 39.1+/-28.5 mg/dL (-54%; P < .001). Desorbed Lp(a) was measured at the waste of the columns for 31 apheresis treatments. Lp(a) concentration of the column waste was higher in patients with elevated serum Lp(a) pretreatment values as compared with those with Lp(a) serum values within the normal range (elevated Lp(a), 1,420+/-380 mg; without elevated Lp(a), 235+/-190 mg; P < .001). The rate of return of Lp(a) following apheresis treatment scheduled at weekly intervals was comparable to that of LDL-cholesterol.