Syndrome de choc toxique staphylococcique chez un hémodialysé chronique
Superantigens secreted by the bacterial pathogen Staphyloccocus aureus are extremely potent toxins that overstimulate the host immune system by binding to the MHC class II and T cell receptors and activating a large population of T cells. Superantigen infection has been shown to be the causative agents in acute diseases, food poisoning and toxic shock syndrome, and in more chronic conditions such as inflammatory skin diseases. In addition to the toll on public health, S. aureus superantigens also represent a potential biothreat to our national security. To address these risks, a number of different therapeutic strategies have been developed that target different aspects of the pathogenic mechanism of S. aureus and superantigen infection. These therapies, which encompass strategies as diverse as production of neutralizing antibodies, inhibitory peptide/receptor design and blockage of superantigen gene transcription, are being tested for treatment of established S. aureus infections in pre- and post-exposure scenarios. In this review, we will describe these different strategies and their efficacies in inhibition of superantigen-induced effects in the host, and present the future outlook for successfully producing therapies for superantigen-based disease.