Therapeutic application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: a review

  title={Therapeutic application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: a review},
  author={Eric M. Wassermann and Sarah H. Lisanby},
  journal={Clinical Neurophysiology},
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
A putative future application of rTMS may be the treatment of patients who did not tolerate or did not respond to antidepressant pharmacotherapy before trying more invasive strategies such as electroconvulsive therapy and vagus nerve stimulation.
General principles for clinical use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)
  • A. D. Noordhout
  • Psychology, Biology
    Neurophysiologie Clinique/Clinical Neurophysiology
  • 2006
Transcranial magnetic stimulation reduces nociceptive threshold in rats
The results suggest that high‐frequency TMS can alter the nociceptive threshold and produce allodynia in the rats; results suggest the involvement of NMDA and AMPA/KA receptors on TMS‐induced allodynian in the rat.
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
Historical and technical aspects of TMS are reviewed, its adverse effects and how to avoid them are described, the applications of T MS in the investigation of different cerebral functions are summarized, and the possibility of using TMS for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders is discussed.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation
Being able to induce relatively long-lasting excitability changes, repetitive TMS has made the treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases linked with brain excitability dysfunctions possible, and TMS-EEG co-registration is considered a promising approach to evaluate corticocortical connectivity and brain reactivity with high temporal resolution.
Combining Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation with (f)MRI
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive and painless tool for the electrical stimulation of the human cortex (Barker et al. 1985). TMS depolarizes cortical neurons and can evoke
[Transcranial magnetic stimulation].
A central motor conduction time can be calculated; this is defined as the latency difference between the motor evoked potentials induced by stimulation of the motor cortex and those evoked by spinal (motor root) stimulation.
Transcranial magnetic brain stimulation: therapeutic promises and scientific gaps.


Depression of motor cortex excitability by low‐frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation
Spread of excitation, which may be a warning sign for seizures, occurred in one subject and was not accompanied by increased MEP amplitude, suggesting that spread ofexcitation and amplitude changes are different phenomena and also indicating the need for adequate monitoring even with stimulations at low frequencies.
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation activates specific regions in rat brain.
  • R. Ji, T. Schlaepfer, F. Rupp
  • Biology, Psychology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1998
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive technique to induce electric currents in the brain. Although rTMS is being evaluated as a possible alternative to
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in rats: evidence for a neuroprotective effect in vitro and in vivo
It is suggested that neurochemical effects induced by rTMS do not lead to reduced neuronal viability, and may even reduce the detrimental effects of oxidative stress in neurons.
A randomized clinical trial of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of major depression
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the treatment of major depression — a pilot study
The data suggest that TMS might indeed have a relevant antidepressive efficacy and there was an improvement of depressive symptoms in both verum groups, more pronounced in the ‘stimulation below threshold’ group.
Long-Term Effects of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Hippocampal Reactivity to Afferent Stimulation
Results indicate that TMS produces a long-term reduction in efficacy of central modulatory systems, particularly in rats treated with chronic TMS.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation: a novel antidepressive strategy?
A controlled clinical trial on patients affected by major depression using TMS as add-on therapy to standard antidepressive medication and finding a statistically significantly greater remission of depressive symptoms occurred in patients of group 1.