Therapeutic Effects of Horseback Riding Therapy on Gross Motor Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

@article{Whalen2012TherapeuticEO,
  title={Therapeutic Effects of Horseback Riding Therapy on Gross Motor Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review},
  author={Cara N Whalen and Jane Case-Smith},
  journal={Physical \& Occupational Therapy In Pediatrics},
  year={2012},
  volume={32},
  pages={229 - 242}
}
ABSTRACT Purpose: This systematic review examined the efficacy of hippotherapy or therapeutic horseback riding (THR) on motor outcomes in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: Databases were searched for clinical trials of hippotherapy or THR for children with CP. Results: Nine articles were included in this review. Although the current level of evidence is weak, our synthesis found that children with spastic CP, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I–III, aged 4… 
THE EFFECTS OF HIPPOTHERAPY AND THERAPEUTIC HORSEBACK RIDING AS A REHABILITATION TECHNIQUE IN CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY : A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
TLDR
Hippotherapy and THR improve GMFM and posture in children with CP, however, with research lacking matched comparison studies, randomisation and small sample sizes, justification for the use of this technique is still limited.
The Short-term Effects of Hippotherapy and Therapeutic Horseback Riding on Spasticity in Children With Cerebral Palsy: A Meta-analysis
TLDR
This is the first meta-analysis to confirm that hippotherapy or THR can reduce lower-limb muscle spasticity in children with CP in the short term, but long-term effects on function still require further studies.
The Effectiveness of Hippotherapy to Recover Gross Motor Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
TLDR
The results obtained in the present review show the potential benefit of HPT intervention in improving gross motor function in children with CP.
Effects of horse riding simulator on sitting motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy.
TLDR
It was concluded that HRS is effective in improving the sitting motor function in children with spastic diplegia and the continuous provision of HRS in longer duration provide more benefits than the shorter duration.
The clinical effect of hippotherapy on gross motor function of children with Cerebral Palsy
TLDR
The clinical effect of hippotherapy on the GMF of children with CP is small and larger studies are required to provide evidence of the effect of Hippotherapy within this population.
Effect of hippotherapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial.
TLDR
Hippotherapy positively affects gross motor function and balance in children with CP of various functional levels.
Effects of Hippotherapy on Gross Motor Function and Functional Performance of Children with Cerebral Palsy
TLDR
The beneficial effects of hippotherapy on gross motor function and functional performance in children with CP compared to control group and the significant improvement in PEDI-FSS scores suggests that hippotherapy may be useful to maximize the functional performance of children withCP.
Effect of Hippotherapy on Motor Proficiency and Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy Who Walk
TLDR
Hippotherapy provided by a trained therapist who applies an intense and graded session for 10 weeks can improve body functions and performance of gross motor and fine motor activities in children with cerebral palsy.
Evaluation of Horse Riding Simulator with Strengthening Training Program and Conventional Physiotherapy in treatment of Children with Spastic Diplegic Cerebral Palsy
TLDR
The evidence from this study confirmed that horse riding simulator with strengthening training has a positive effect on (GMFM-66) and could reduce spasticity in the muscle for children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy.
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References

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TLDR
There is Level 2a evidence that hippotherapy is effective for treating muscle symmetry in the trunk and hip and that therapeutic horseback riding is effectivefor improved gross motor function when compared with regular therapy or time on a waiting list.
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TLDR
The evidence suggests that HBRT and hippotherapy are individually efficacious, and are both medically indicated as therapy for gross motor rehabilitation in children with CP.
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Major findings from a study of the therapeutic benefits of horseback riding for children with cerebral palsy indicate a need for further research and for finding or developing instruments that are able to capture and reveal meaningful changes in physical and psychosocial status.
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TLDR
A statistically significant difference was found between the three test intervals with significant improvement occurring during the period of therapeutic riding, and clinical improvements were also noted in muscle tone and balance as evidenced by improved functional skills.
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TLDR
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TLDR
Hippotherapy appears to be a viable treatment strategy for therapists with experience and training in this form of treatment and a means of improving functional outcomes in children with cerebral palsy, although specific functional skills were not investigated.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
This study provides baseline data for future research and useful clinical information for physical therapists using hippotherapy as a treatment modality for children with spastic cerebral palsy.
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