Although epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI) produce an initially dramatic response in lung cancer patients harboring a mutation in the EGFR gene, development of acquired resistance is almost inevitable. A secondary mutation of threonine 790 (T790M) is associated with approximately half of the cases of acquired resistance. This study investigated whether the addition of silibinin to therapy with gefitinib or erlotinib could overcome T790M-mediated drug resistance considering that silibinin has various antitumor effects, including EGFR modulation. Silibinin selectively reduced the activity of the EGFR family (EGFR, ErbB2, and ErbB3) through the inhibition of receptor dimerization in lung cancer cells with EGFR mutations, but not in those harboring the wild type. In primary and acquired resistant cells with T790M, addition of silibinin enhanced the ability of EGFR-TKIs to downregulate EGFR signals and to inhibit cell growth. Similarly, the combination of silibinin and erlotinib effectively suppressed tumor growth in erlotinib resistance-bearing PC-9 xenografts. The results indicate that the addition of silibinin to EGFR-TKIs is a promising strategy to overcomeT790M-mediateddrug resistance.Mol Cancer Ther; 9(12); 3233–43. 2010AACR.