Theory of the half-filled Landau level.

@article{Halperin1993TheoryOT,
  title={Theory of the half-filled Landau level.},
  author={Bertrand I. Halperin and Patrick A. Lee and Nicholas Read},
  journal={Physical Review B},
  year={1993},
  volume={47},
  pages={7312-7343}
}
A two-dimensional electron system in an external magnetic field, with Landau-level filling factor \ensuremath{\nu}=1/2, can be transformed to a mathematically equivalent system of fermions interacting with a Chern-Simons gauge field such that the average effective magnetic field acting on the fermions is zero. If one ignores fluctuations in the gauge field, this implies that for a system with no impurity scattering, there should be a well-defined Fermi surface for the fermions. When gauge… 
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