Theory and external validity

  title={Theory and external validity},
  author={Jr. John G. Lynch},
  journal={Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science},
  • J. Lynch
  • Published 1 July 1999
  • Business
  • Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science
Winer (1999 [this issue]) proposes that external validity concerns require more attention in theoretical research. The author argues that one cannot “enhance” external validity by choosing one method over another. External validity can only be “assessed” by better understanding how the focal variables in one’s theory interact with moderator variables that are seen as irrelevant early in a research stream. Findings from single real-world settings and specific sets of “real” people are no more… 

Theory-Testing, Generalization, and the Problem of External Validity*

External validity refers to the generalization of research findings, either from a sample to a larger population or to settings and populations other than those studied. While definitions vary,

Theory, External Validity, and Experimental Inference: Some Conjectures

It is often argued that experiments are strong on causal identification (internal validity) but weak on generalizability (external validity). One widely accepted way to limit threats to external

The BDT Effect and Future : A Reply to John Lynch and

Lynch (2015) and Schwarz (2015) offer different assessments and perspectives regarding the (“(nearly) accomplished”) mission and characteristics of BDT research and its contribution to our field

Context may be King, but generalizability is the Emperor!

This commentary generally agrees with the notion that context should matter more in IS research; yet, the importance of generalizability in research should not be downplayed and should be given higher position in the scientific process and be the ultimate goal for researchers.

Considerations of ecological validity in cognitive translation and interpreting studies

Renewed interest in research methods used in cognitive translation and interpreting studies (CTIS) has led to increased reflection on the nature of research and experimental design, internal and

Threats to the External Validity of Brand Extension Research

The findings of prior research suggest that a brand's extendibility is constrained by the degree of perceived fit between the brand and extension product categories. However, there are many examples

The CONSORT Statement: Explanation and Elaboration

  • H. Yuasa
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Annals of Internal Medicine
  • 2002
I think that the generalization is actually particularized in an individual patient, and therefore I agree with Altman and colleagues' conclusions, and hope that they will state whether the target of validity is the individual patient or the population.

The Effects of Negative Publicity on Consumer Attitudes: A Replication and Extension

Previous studies have found that negative publicity might have a harmful effect on consumer perceptions. However, the few investigating how consumers process different company reactions to the

The value of context-specific studies for marketing

This paper clarifies why context-specific studies have scientific merit and provides recommendations to authors and journal stewards on how to develop them well. A context-specific study is a study



The Role of External Validity in Theoretical Research

Calder, Phillips, and Tybout (1982) have criticized my analysis of the role of external validity in theoretical consumer research (Lynch 1982). In particular, they disputed my argument that

Experimentation in the 21st century: The importance of external validity

The author argues that external validity concerns should be given more attention in TA research and consumer behavior articles should be required to have a section indicating how increased levels of external validity can be obtained with other studies.

Unobserved Heterogeneity as an Alternative Explanation for 'Reversal' Effects in Behavioral Research

Behavioral researchers use analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests of differences between treatment means or chi-square tests of differences between proportions to provide support for empirical hypotheses

Research settings in industrial and organizational psychology: Are findings in the field more generalizable than in the laboratory?

The authors analyzed for content all the empirical articles from the 1966, 1970, and 1974 volumes of the Journal of Applied Psychology, Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, and Personnel

The Bankruptcy of Everyday Memory

A new approach to the study of memory has emerged recently, characterized by a preoccupation with natural settings and with the immediate applicability of research findings. In contrast, the

The Concept of External Validity

Many researchers feel that external validity must be emphasized even in theoretical research. The argument for both a sophisticated and a common sense version of this contention is refuted in this

Hypothesized and Confounded Explanations in Theory Tests: A Bayesian Analysis

Traditional views of research methodology hold that little, if any, useful information can be obtained from one or more confounded studies, unless the results from one study rule out or falsify an

The External Validity of Experiments1

Shortly after publication, Donald T. Campbell and Julian C. Stanley's "Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Research on Teaching" (1963) gained the status of a classic exposition of

Market-Level Effects of Information: Competitive Responses and Consumer Dynamics

Information flowing into a market from firms can stimulate competitive activity and consumer dynamics that ultimately improve the functioning of that market (e.g., improve product quality). However,

Discovery-oriented consumer research.

The Journal of Consumer Research and the Association for Consumer Research initiated a new discipline, intended to embrace divergent topics, methods, concepts, data, motives, partners, and ideas.