Theoretical principles underlying optical stimulation of myelinated axons expressing channelrhodopsin-2.

@article{Arlow2013TheoreticalPU,
  title={Theoretical principles underlying optical stimulation of myelinated axons expressing channelrhodopsin-2.},
  author={Richard L. Arlow and Thomas J. Foutz and Cameron C. McIntyre},
  journal={Neuroscience},
  year={2013},
  volume={248},
  pages={
          541-51
        }
}
Numerous clinical conditions can be treated by neuromodulation of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Typical electrical PNS therapies activate large diameter axons at lower electrical stimulus thresholds than small diameter axons. However, recent animal experiments with peripheral optogenetic neural stimulation (PONS) of myelinated axons expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) have shown that this technique activates small diameter axons at lower irradiances than large diameter axons. We… CONTINUE READING

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However , recent animal experiments with peripheral optogenetic neural stimulation ( PONS ) of myelinated axons expressing channelrhodopsin-2 ( ChR2 ) have shown that this technique activates small diameter axons at lower irradiances than large diameter axons .
We constructed " light - axon " PONS models that included multi - compartment , double cable , myelinated axon models embedded with ChR2 membrane dynamics , coupled with a model of blue light dynamics in the tissue medium from a range of different light sources .
We hypothesized that the small - to - large diameter recruitment order primarily arises from the internodal spacing relationship of myelinated axons .
Theoretical principles underlying optical stimulation of myelinated axons expressing channelrhodopsin-2 .
However , recent animal experiments with peripheral optogenetic neural stimulation ( PONS ) of myelinated axons expressing channelrhodopsin-2 ( ChR2 ) have shown that this technique activates small diameter axons at lower irradiances than large diameter axons .
We constructed " light - axon " PONS models that included multi - compartment , double cable , myelinated axon models embedded with ChR2 membrane dynamics , coupled with a model of blue light dynamics in the tissue medium from a range of different light sources .
However , recent animal experiments with peripheral optogenetic neural stimulation ( PONS ) of myelinated axons expressing channelrhodopsin-2 ( ChR2 ) have shown that this technique activates small diameter axons at lower irradiances than large diameter axons .
Small diameter axons have shorter distances between their nodes of Ranvier , which increases the number of nodes of Ranvier directly illuminated relative to larger diameter axons .
Small diameter axons have shorter distances between their nodes of Ranvier , which increases the number of nodes of Ranvier directly illuminated relative to larger diameter axons .
Small diameter axons have shorter distances between their nodes of Ranvier , which increases the number of nodes of Ranvier directly illuminated relative to larger diameter axons .
Small diameter axons have shorter distances between their nodes of Ranvier , which increases the number of nodes of Ranvier directly illuminated relative to larger diameter axons .
Small diameter axons have shorter distances between their nodes of Ranvier , which increases the number of nodes of Ranvier directly illuminated relative to larger diameter axons .
Small diameter axons have shorter distances between their nodes of Ranvier , which increases the number of nodes of Ranvier directly illuminated relative to larger diameter axons .
Small diameter axons have shorter distances between their nodes of Ranvier , which increases the number of nodes of Ranvier directly illuminated relative to larger diameter axons .
Small diameter axons have shorter distances between their nodes of Ranvier , which increases the number of nodes of Ranvier directly illuminated relative to larger diameter axons .
We constructed " light - axon " PONS models that included multi - compartment , double cable , myelinated axon models embedded with ChR2 membrane dynamics , coupled with a model of blue light dynamics in the tissue medium from a range of different light sources .
We constructed " light - axon " PONS models that included multi - compartment , double cable , myelinated axon models embedded with ChR2 membrane dynamics , coupled with a model of blue light dynamics in the tissue medium from a range of different light sources .
We constructed " light - axon " PONS models that included multi - compartment , double cable , myelinated axon models embedded with ChR2 membrane dynamics , coupled with a model of blue light dynamics in the tissue medium from a range of different light sources .
We constructed " light - axon " PONS models that included multi - compartment , double cable , myelinated axon models embedded with ChR2 membrane dynamics , coupled with a model of blue light dynamics in the tissue medium from a range of different light sources .
However , recent animal experiments with peripheral optogenetic neural stimulation ( PONS ) of myelinated axons expressing channelrhodopsin-2 ( ChR2 ) have shown that this technique activates small diameter axons at lower irradiances than large diameter axons .
However , recent animal experiments with peripheral optogenetic neural stimulation ( PONS ) of myelinated axons expressing channelrhodopsin-2 ( ChR2 ) have shown that this technique activates small diameter axons at lower irradiances than large diameter axons .
However , recent animal experiments with peripheral optogenetic neural stimulation ( PONS ) of myelinated axons expressing channelrhodopsin-2 ( ChR2 ) have shown that this technique activates small diameter axons at lower irradiances than large diameter axons .
We hypothesized that the small - to - large diameter recruitment order primarily arises from the internodal spacing relationship of myelinated axons .
Theoretical principles underlying optical stimulation of myelinated axons expressing channelrhodopsin-2 .
We constructed " light - axon " PONS models that included multi - compartment , double cable , myelinated axon models embedded with ChR2 membrane dynamics , coupled with a model of blue light dynamics in the tissue medium from a range of different light sources .
We constructed " light - axon " PONS models that included multi - compartment , double cable , myelinated axon models embedded with ChR2 membrane dynamics , coupled with a model of blue light dynamics in the tissue medium from a range of different light sources .
Small diameter axons have shorter distances between their nodes of Ranvier , which increases the number of nodes of Ranvier directly illuminated relative to larger diameter axons .
Small diameter axons have shorter distances between their nodes of Ranvier , which increases the number of nodes of Ranvier directly illuminated relative to larger diameter axons .
Small diameter axons have shorter distances between their nodes of Ranvier , which increases the number of nodes of Ranvier directly illuminated relative to larger diameter axons .
Small diameter axons have shorter distances between their nodes of Ranvier , which increases the number of nodes of Ranvier directly illuminated relative to larger diameter axons .
Small diameter axons have shorter distances between their nodes of Ranvier , which increases the number of nodes of Ranvier directly illuminated relative to larger diameter axons .
Small diameter axons have shorter distances between their nodes of Ranvier , which increases the number of nodes of Ranvier directly illuminated relative to larger diameter axons .
Small diameter axons have shorter distances between their nodes of Ranvier , which increases the number of nodes of Ranvier directly illuminated relative to larger diameter axons .
Small diameter axons have shorter distances between their nodes of Ranvier , which increases the number of nodes of Ranvier directly illuminated relative to larger diameter axons .
Ranvier's NodesRegional part ofAxon
Small diameter axons have shorter distances between their nodes of Ranvier , which increases the number of nodes of Ranvier directly illuminated relative to larger diameter axons .
Small diameter axons have shorter distances between their nodes of Ranvier , which increases the number of nodes of Ranvier directly illuminated relative to larger diameter axons .
Small diameter axons have shorter distances between their nodes of Ranvier , which increases the number of nodes of Ranvier directly illuminated relative to larger diameter axons .
Small diameter axons have shorter distances between their nodes of Ranvier , which increases the number of nodes of Ranvier directly illuminated relative to larger diameter axons .
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