# Theoretical methods for the calculation of Bragg curves and 3D distributions of proton beams

@article{Ulmer2010TheoreticalMF, title={Theoretical methods for the calculation of Bragg curves and 3D distributions of proton beams}, author={Waldemar Ulmer and Evangelos Matsinos}, journal={The European Physical Journal Special Topics}, year={2010}, volume={190}, pages={1-81} }

The well-known Bragg-Kleeman rule RCSDA = A ⋅ E has become a pioneer work in radiation physics of charged particles and is still a useful tool to estimate the range RCSDA of approximately monoenergetic protons with initial energy E0 in a homogeneous medium. The rule is based on the continuous-slowing-down-approximation (CSDA). It results from a generalized (nonrelativistic) Langevin equation and a modification of the phenomenological friction term. The complete integration of this equation…

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