Theoretical basis for the benefit of postmenopausal estrogen substitution

@article{Miller1999TheoreticalBF,
  title={Theoretical basis for the benefit of postmenopausal estrogen substitution},
  author={M M Miller and Keith B. J. Franklin},
  journal={Experimental Gerontology},
  year={1999},
  volume={34},
  pages={587-604}
}
Women are being presented with an increasing number of choices for health care management as they move through the aging process. Estrogen has positive effects on mood, sexual function, target end organs and cognitive function, and may play an important role in the etiology of Alzheimer's Disease by acting to prevent amyloid plaque formation, oxidative stress, or deterioration of the cholinergic neurotransmitter system. The benefits of estrogen therapy for osteoporosis, the cardiovascular… 
The physiology, medical management and oral implications of menopause.
TLDR
Dentists have an opportunity to refer women who are not under the care of a gynecologist for an evaluation to determine the appropriateness of HRT for its systemic and oral health benefits.
Estrogens and brain function.
TLDR
The existing evidence supports the use of HRT only in women with menopausal symptoms for a few years following menopause, but the results of the Women's Health Initiative Study (WHIMS) do not support this, at least not in women over the age of 65.
Bio-Identical Hormones Utilized for Treating Menopausal Symptoms: Are The y Safe?
TLDR
A retrospective chart review for the incidence of adverse outcomes specific to osteoporosis, breast cancer incidence, and cardiovascular disease in menopausal women utilizing BHRT is conducted.
Estrogen Replacement Therapy for the Potential Treatment or Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
TLDR
This review summarizes clinical studies that have examined the effects of estrogen in women with AD and produces conflicting findings on the use of estrogen for maintaining cognitive function in older people.
Use of growth hormone for prevention or treatment of effects of aging.
  • S. M. Harman, M. Blackman
  • Medicine
    The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences
  • 2004
TLDR
Treatment of elderly individuals with rhGH should be confined to controlled research studies, and clinically significant functional benefits, prolongation of youth, and life extension have not been demonstrated.
A Clinician ’s Guide to Understanding the Dilemme
TLDR
Hormone replacement therapy is typically prescribed in the short‐term for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and for longer periods of time to reduce the risk of osteoporosis, heart disease, and Alzheimer's disease—all of which increase both in incidence and in prevalence in postmenopause.
Effects of different postmenopausal hormone therapy regimens on cerebral blood flow and cognitive functions
TLDR
Different postmenopausal hormone therapy regimens have not revealed any significant effects on either cerebral blood flow or cognitive function.
Somatopause and Elderly GHD – Similarities and Differences
Decreases in growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I occur with age, in addition to oestrogen deficiency in women and a reduction in the levels of testosterone in men. These age-related
GrowthHormoneandSexSteroidAdministration in Healthy Aged Women and Men A Randomized Controlled Trial
THE EXTENT TO WHICH REduced function of the growth hormone (GH) and insulinlike growth factor I (IGF-I) axis in aged women and men, estrogen deficiency in postmenopausal women, and decreases in
Endogenous estrogen levels affect sexual function in elderly post-menopausal women.
TLDR
Endogenous E2 levels are important predictors of change inSexual function in elderly women who are sexually active, however, this result needs to be proven in a study with a bigger sample size of sexually active women, who present with changes in sexual function over several years.
...
1
2
3
4
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 80 REFERENCES
The effect of estrogen replacement therapy on cognitive function in women: a critical review of the literature.
TLDR
Although several observational studies provide encouraging evidence for the beneficial effect of estrogen on cognitive function, there is currently inadequate evidence available from randomized, controlled trials to support the conclusion that estrogen replacement therapy improves cognitive function in post-menopausal women or women with Alzheimer's dementia.
Physiologic and pharmacologic effects of estrogen and progestins on bone.
  • A. Decherney
  • Medicine
    The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • 1993
TLDR
Studies in postmenopausal women and studies of add-back therapy in younger women have shown that norethindrone, but not medroxyprogesterone, treatment has a bone-sparing effect on cortical bone but not on trabecular bone, suggesting a direct mechanism via estrogen receptors on bone.
Alternatives to Estrogen for Menopausal Women
  • B. Kessel
  • Medicine
    Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine
  • 1998
TLDR
Limited acceptable alternatives to hormone replacement therapy exist for use by postmenopausal women and there is widespread use of complementary therapies among post menopausal women despite a lack of data on efficacy or safety of such therapies.
Estrogen and coronary heart disease in women.
TLDR
The evidence that estrogen is protective against the development of cardiovascular disease in women is reviewed and the protection is biologically plausible and the magnitude of the benefit would be quite large if selection factors can be excluded.
Estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women: effects on cognitive function and dementia.
TLDR
There are plausible biological mechanisms by which estrogen might lead to improved cognition, reduced risk for dementia, or improvement in the severity of dementia, but large placebo-controlled trials are required to address estrogen's role in prevention and treatment of Alzheimer disease and other dementias.
Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators: An Alternative to Hormone Replacement Therapy
  • H. Bryant, W. Dere
  • Medicine
    Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine
  • 1998
TLDR
It is clear that for raloxifene, both the estrogen agonist effects on bone and cholesterol metabolism as well as the estrogen antagonist effects in uterine and mammary tissue involve high affinity interaction with the estrogen receptor.
Effect of oestrogen during menopause on risk and age at onset of Alzheimer's disease
TLDR
Oestrogen use in postmenopausal women may delay the onset and decrease the risk of Alzheimer's disease and Prospective studies are needed to establish the dose and duration required to provide this benefit and to assess its safety in elderly post menopause women.
Female sex hormones and cardiovascular disease in women
TLDR
Addition of progestins to estrogen therapy in women appears not to significantly attenuate the cardioprotective effects of estrogen replacement therapy despite experimental data suggesting otherwise.
Does Postmenopausal Estrogen Administration Increase the Risk of Breast Cancer? Contributions of Animal, Biochemical, and Clinical Investigative Studies to a Resolution of the Controversy
  • B. Zumoff
  • Medicine
    Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine
  • 1998
TLDR
Increased risk of breast cancer from postmenopausal estrogen administration can be eliminated by taking two synergistic steps: Eliminating alcohol consumption and Diminishing the capacity to 16 α-hydroxylate estradiol, either through pharmacological agents such as indole-3-carbinol or through increased consumption of cruciferous vegetables.
Impact of the menopause on skeletal metabolism and osteoporotic syndromes
  • L. Avioli
  • Medicine
    Experimental Gerontology
  • 1994
TLDR
The informed physician should attempt to identify those peri- and postmenopausal patients at risk for more active bone turnover and rapid bone loss syndromes utilizing well-established and FDA-approved therapeutic interventional procedures to prevent the loss of skeletal tissue.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...