The zone of proximal development in in-hand manipulation skills of nondysfunctional 3- and 4-year-old children.

@article{Exner1990TheZO,
  title={The zone of proximal development in in-hand manipulation skills of nondysfunctional 3- and 4-year-old children.},
  author={Charlotte E. Exner},
  journal={The American journal of occupational therapy : official publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association},
  year={1990},
  volume={44 10},
  pages={
          884-91
        }
}
The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of verbal and visual cues on 28 nondysfunctional 3- and 4-year-old children's performance of in-hand manipulation skills. During the uncued version of the test (pretest), the children were presented with play activities known to elicit in-hand manipulation skills in young children but were given no cues for specific manipulative skill use. Within 1 week of the pretest, after the children were randomly assigned to groups, a posttest was given… CONTINUE READING

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