The world as a hologram

  title={The world as a hologram},
  author={Leonard Susskind},
  journal={Journal of Mathematical Physics},
  • L. Susskind
  • Published 15 September 1994
  • Physics
  • Journal of Mathematical Physics
According to ’t Hooft the combination of quantum mechanics and gravity requires the three‐dimensional world to be an image of data that can be stored on a two‐dimensional projection much like a holographic image. The two‐dimensional description only requires one discrete degree of freedom per Planck area and yet it is rich enough to describe all three‐dimensional phenomena. After outlining ’t Hooft’s proposal we give a preliminary informal description of how it may be implemented. One finds a… 

Figures from this paper

De Sitter Space and Holography
The development of complete and explicit holographic descriptions of universes with positive cosmological constant (such as the authors' own) is built on, which is the first explicit example of this kind, which was proposed very recently.
Quantum gravity as a dissipative deterministic system
It is argued that the so-called holographic principle will obstruct attempts to produce physically realistic models for the unification of general relativity with quantum mechanics, unless
Trans-Planckian particles are elementary particles accelerated such that their energies surpass the Planck value . There are several reasons to believe that trans-Planckian particles do not represent
Implications of a holographic density of states on inflation
There is theoretical evidence that the number of degrees of freedom in quantum fields decreases as one studies them at extremely short distances. This emerges from the study of entropy of black
Horizon Quantum Mechanics: a hitchhiker's guide to quantum black holes
It is congruous with the quantum nature of the world to view the space-time geometry as an emergent structure that shows classical features only at some observational level. One can thus conceive the
M theory as a holographic field theory
We suggest that M theory could be nonperturbatively equivalent to a local quantum field theory. More precisely, we present a “renormalizable” gauge theory in eleven dimensions, and show that it
Information from the Beginning
Requiring black hole evaporation to be quantum-mechanically coherent imposes a universal, finite “holographic bound”, conjectured to be due to fundamental discreteness of quantized gravity, on the
Holographic Bound in Quantum Field Energy Density and Cosmological Constant
The cosmological constant problem is reanalyzed by imposing the limitation of the number of degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) due to entropy bounds directly in the calculation of the energy density of a
Harmonic resolution as a holographic quantum number
The Bekenstein bound takes the holographic principle into the realm of flat space, promising new insights on the relation of non-gravitational physics to quantum gravity. This makes it important to


Entropy bounds and black hole remnants.
  • Bekenstein
  • Physics
    Physical review. D, Particles and fields
  • 1994
The universal bound on entropy is rederive with the help of black holes while allowing for Unruh-Wald buoyancy and it is demonstrated by explicit calculation that, for an arbitrarily large number of particle species, the bound is indeed satisfied by cavity thermal radiation in the thermodynamic regime, provided vacuum energies are included.
Strings, black holes, and Lorentz contraction.
  • Susskind
  • Physics
    Physical review. D, Particles and fields
  • 1994
It is shown that conventional fundamental string theory shares the features of Lorentz transformation properties of the size and shape of physical systems with momentum beyond the Planck scale.
Inelastic Electron Proton and gamma Proton Scattering, and the Structure of the Nucleon
A model for highly inelastic electron-nucleon scattering at high energies is studied and compared with existing data. This model envisages the proton to be composed of pointlike constituents
Average entropy of a subsystem.
  • Page
  • Mathematics
    Physical review letters
  • 1993
There is less than one-half unit of information, on average, in the smaller subsystem of a total system in a random pure state.