The will and the ways: development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope.

@article{Snyder1991TheWA,
  title={The will and the ways: development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope.},
  author={Charles R. Snyder and Christopher Harris and James R Anderson and Sharon A. Holleran and Lori M. Irving and Sandra T. Sigmon and L Yoshinobu and Joel Gibb and C Langelle and Paul F. Harney},
  journal={Journal of personality and social psychology},
  year={1991},
  volume={60 4},
  pages={
          570-85
        }
}
Defining hope as a cognitive set that is composed of a reciprocally derived sense of successful (a) agency (goal-directed determination) and (b) pathways (planning of ways to meet goals), an individual-differences measure is developed. Studies demonstrate acceptable internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and the factor structure identifies the agency and pathways components of the Hope Scale. Convergent and discriminant validity are documented, along with evidence suggesting that… CONTINUE READING

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