The weapon focus effect on memory for female versus male perpetrators

@article{Pickel2009TheWF,
  title={The weapon focus effect on memory for female versus male perpetrators},
  author={Kerri L. Pickel},
  journal={Memory},
  year={2009},
  volume={17},
  pages={664 - 678}
}
  • K. Pickel
  • Published 6 July 2009
  • Psychology
  • Memory
Previous research suggests that weapons are often inconsistent with the schema activated by eyewitnesses, which leads them to attend to weapons more than they would to neutral objects. Therefore an especially strong weapon focus effect should occur when a perpetrator holds an object primarily associated with the opposite rather than the same gender. As predicted, a handgun reduced the accuracy of witnesses’ descriptions of a female perpetrator more than descriptions of a male perpetrator… 
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References

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Two experiments investigated context effects in “weapon focus.” In Experiment 1, undergraduates who watched a videotape depicting an armed man provided less accurate descriptions of him if the action
Weapon focus, arousal, and eyewitness memory
Weapon focus refers to the decreased ability to give an accurate description of the perpetrator of a crime by an eyewitness because of attention to a weapon present during that crime. In the first
Weapon Focus and Gender Differences in Eyewitness Accuracy: Arousal Versus Salience
Competing theories of arousal versus salience and object enhancement vs. reduced perceptual processing as explanations for the weapon focus effect in eyewitness identification were examined. Male and
The weapon focus effect revisited: The role of novelty
Purpose. The relationship between novelty, self-reported affect, and the weapon focus effect was investigated. Methods. In two experiments, college students watched a videotaped scene in which
The weapon focus effect in child eyewitnesses
Abstract The present study investigated whether children would exhibit the weapon focus effect that has been demonstrated with adult eyewitnesses. Participants (4- and 5-year-olds, 7- and
Sex differences, weapon focus, and eyewitness reliability.
Two aspects of eyewitness identification were tested: sex differences in eyewitness reliability and an explanation of the weapon focus effect that is based on object salience. One hundred ninety-one
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The present experiment investigates the effect of weapons on eyewitness recall and recognition using a new experimental paradigm in which a syringe serves as weapon simulation. Contrary to previous
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TLDR
In two experiments exploring possible causes of the "weapon focus" effect, undergraduates viewed videotapes depicting interactions in business establishments and had difficulty remembering the low-threat, non-unusual object.
A “weapon focus” effect in children
Abstract Experiments suggest that the presence of a weapon impairs memory for the appearance of the perpetrator (“weapon focus”), although whether this reflects threat or novelty value remains
Do weapons automatically capture attention
Two experiments explored whether weapons automatically capture attention or whether eyewitnesses can overcome the weapon focus effect if so instructed. Witnesses heard a lecture that either
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