The vulnerability of electric vehicle deployment to critical mineral supply

  title={The vulnerability of electric vehicle deployment to critical mineral supply},
  author={Benjamin Ballinger and Martin Stringer and Diego R. Schmeda-Lopez and Ben J. Kefford and B. Parkinson and Chris Greig and Simon Smart},
  journal={Applied Energy},
Electric vehicles are poised to play a large role in the decarbonisation of the transportation sector. World governments have pledged to bring 13 million plug-in electric vehicles on the road by 2020 and 100 million by 2030. The rapid expansion required to meet these targets, from a global stock of 5 million electric vehicles in 2018, has the potential to be constrained by material supply chains. This study has identified 7 key elements which are significant supply risks to the electric vehicle… 
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