The virophage as a unique parasite of the giant mimivirus

@article{Scola2008TheVA,
  title={The virophage as a unique parasite of the giant mimivirus},
  author={Bernard La Scola and Christelle Desnues and Isabelle Pagnier and Catherine Robert and Lina Barrassi and Ghislain Fournous and Mich{\`e}le Merchat and Marie Suzan-Monti and Patrick Forterre and Eugene V. Koonin and Didier Raoult},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2008},
  volume={455},
  pages={100-104}
}
Viruses are obligate parasites of Eukarya, Archaea and Bacteria. Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV) is the largest known virus; it grows only in amoeba and is visible under the optical microscope. Mimivirus possesses a 1,185-kilobase double-stranded linear chromosome whose coding capacity is greater than that of numerous bacteria and archaea. Here we describe an icosahedral small virus, Sputnik, 50 nm in size, found associated with a new strain of APMV. Sputnik cannot multiply in… 
Viruses of Microorganisms
TLDR
The serendipitous discovery of Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus and the analysis of its 1.2 million base pair dsDNA genome have profoundly changed the authors' view of the viral world.
Mimivirus and its virophage.
TLDR
The recent isolation of a new type of satellite virus, called a virophage, associated with a second strain of Mimivirus, confirmed its unique position within the virus world.
Provirophages and transpovirons as the diverse mobilome of giant viruses
TLDR
The virophage, the transpoviron, and the previously identified self-splicing introns and inteins constitute the complex, interconnected mobilome of the giant viruses and are likely to substantially contribute to interviral gene transfer.
Mimivirus: leading the way in the discovery of giant viruses of amoebae
TLDR
The accidental discovery of the giant virus of amoeba — Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV) in 2003 changed the field of virology and challenge the definition and classification of viruses, and have increasingly been detected in humans.
Gene Repertoire of Amoeba-Associated Giant Viruses
TLDR
The large amount of chimeric genes in these viral genomes might have resulted from acquisitions by lateral gene transfers, implicating sympatric bacteria and viruses with an intra-amoebal lifestyle, and lineage-specific gene expansion may have played a major role in the genome shaping.
Pandoraviruses: Amoeba Viruses with Genomes Up to 2.5 Mb Reaching That of Parasitic Eukaryotes
TLDR
The isolation of two giant viruses, one off the coast of central Chile, the other from a freshwater pond near Melbourne, without morphological or genomic resemblance to any previously defined virus families are reported.
Complete genome sequence of Courdo11 virus, a member of the family Mimiviridae
TLDR
The comparative analyses of Courdo11 virus with the genomes of other giant viruses showed that it belongs to lineage C of mimiviruses of amoebae, being most closely related to Megavirus chilensis and LBA 111, the first mimivirus isolated from a human.
Distant Mimivirus relative with a larger genome highlights the fundamental features of Megaviridae
TLDR
Megavirus chilensis is presented, a giant virus isolated off the coast of Chile, but capable of replicating in fresh water acanthamoeba and exhibits three additional aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase genes adding strong support to the previous suggestion that the Mimivirus/Megav virus lineage evolved from an ancestral cellular genome by reductive evolution.
Guarani Virophage, a New Sputnik-Like Isolate From a Brazilian Lake
TLDR
The isolation and the characterization of a new virophage is described and it is observed that Guarani exhibits a late replication cycle compared to its giant virus host, suggesting a common origin for all thesevirophages.
Mimivirus shows dramatic genome reduction after intraamoebal culture
TLDR
The Mimivirus transition from a sympatric to an allopatric lifestyle was associated with a stepwise genome reduction and the production of a predominantly bald virophage resistant strain and the new axenic ecosystem allowed the allop atric Mimiv virus to lose unnecessary genes that might be involved in the control of competitors.
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