The viceroy butterfly is not a batesian mimic

@article{Ritland1991TheVB,
  title={The viceroy butterfly is not a batesian mimic},
  author={David B. Ritland and Lincoln Pierson Brower},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1991},
  volume={350},
  pages={497-498}
}
DEFENSIVE mimicry has long been a paradigm of adaptive evolution by natural selection1–3. Mimics, models and predators in a batesian mimicry system (unpalatable model, palatable mimic) exist in a very different selective milieu from those in a müllerian system (involving ≳2 unpalatable 'co-models')1,4–6. Consequently, the incorrect characterization of a mimicry relationship obscures the natural histories of populations involved and undermines attempts to test general mimicry theory by means of… Expand
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TLDR
I present here some unique cases of sexual dimorphisms within the putative Mullerian mimicry complexes, including a Danaus chrysippus-mimicking nymphalid, Argyreus hyperbius, and a pipevine swallowtail, which exhibits sexually dimorphic color patterns (male, black; female, smoky brown). Expand
Causes and Consequences of a Lack of Coevolution in Müllerian mimicry
TLDR
The case against classical Müllerian mimicry is not totally disproved, and should be investigated further, and it is hoped that this tentative analysis of actual mimicry rings may encourage others to look for evidence of coevolution and quasi-Batesian effects in a variety of other Mülleri mimicry systems. Expand
Evaluating an Alleged Mimic of the Monarch Butterfly: Neophasia (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) Butterflies are Palatable to Avian Predators
TLDR
The first to empirically investigate a proposed mimic of the monarch butterfly: Neophasia terlooii, the Mexican pine white butterfly (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), and discusses the results considering modifications to classic mimicry theory, i.e., a palatability-based continuum between Batesian and Müllerian mimicry, with a quasi-Batesian intermediate. Expand
Mimicry-related Predation on Two Viceroy Butterfly (Limenitis archippus) Phenotypes
TLDR
It is proposed that geographic model-switching explains the large-scale modern-day correlation between Danaus biogeography and viceroy wing color, and that differential predation on light and dark viceroys by captive red-winged blackbirds previously exposed to either monarchs or queens demonstrates the selective mechanism responsible for the evolution of regional vicerOY races. Expand
Unpalatability of viceroy butterflies (Limenitis archippus) and their purported mimicry models, Florida queens (Danaus gilippus)
TLDR
Assessing palatability of viceroys and queens from the sampled populations exemplify Müllerian rather than Batesian mimicry, and the viceroy appears to be the stronger model. Expand
Mimicry in viceroy butterflies is dependent on abundance of the model queen butterfly
TLDR
Results suggest that mimetic viceroy populations are maintained at localities of low-model abundance through an increase in their toxicity, thereby supporting the origin and maintenance of aposematism. Expand
University of Florida Book of Insect Records Chapter 28 Most Spectacular Batesian Mimicry
TLDR
The most common example of Batesian mimicry, the Viceroy butterfly, once thought to mimic the Monarch, has through further investigation proven to be as distasteful to birds as the Monarch (Ritland and Brower 1991). Expand
Mimicry-related variation in wing color of viceroy butterflies (Limenitis archippus): a test of the model-switching hypothesis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).
TLDR
This work supports the hypothesis that the viceroy's mimetic wing-color pattern is regionally "fine-tuned," phenotypically tracking different models in different areas. Expand
Causes and consequences of a lack of coevolution in MuÈ llerian mimicry
MuÈ llerian mimicry, in which both partners are unpalatable to predators, is often used as an example of a coevolved mutualism. However, it is theoretically possible that some MuÈ llerian mimics areExpand
Comparative unpalatability of mimetic viceroy butterflies (Limenitis archippus) from four south-eastern United States populations
TLDR
Assessing the palatability of wild-caught viceroys from four genetically and ecologically diverse populations in the southeastern United States supports the hypothesis that the viceroy-danaine relationship in some areas represents Müllerian mimicry, prompting a reassessment of selective forces shaping the interaction. Expand
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TLDR
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The process of adaptive radiation and convergence, usually regarded as a feature of macro-evolution, can be seen in the mimetic colour patterns of the butterflies within the confines of the South American genus Heliconius, and the theory that the mimicry between species results solely from close systematic relationships is refuted. Expand
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Abstract. 1. Population size as well as the absolute and relative frequencies of the phegea and filipendulae mimetic complexes have been estimated in an area of Central Italy selected because it is:Expand
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