The versatility of graded acoustic measures in classification of predation threats by the tufted titmouse Baeolophus bicolor : exploring a mixed framework for threat communication

Many mammal and bird species respond to predator encounters with alarm vocalizations that generate risk-appropriate responses in listeners. Two conceptual frameworks are typically applied to the information encoded in alarm calls and to associated anti-predator behaviors. ‘Functionally referential’ alarm systems encode nominal classes or categories of risk… (More)