The velocity of climate change

@article{Loarie2009TheVO,
  title={The velocity of climate change},
  author={Scott Loarie and Philip B. Duffy and Healy Hamilton and Gregory P. Asner and Christopher B. Field and David D. Ackerly},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2009},
  volume={462},
  pages={1052-1055}
}
The ranges of plants and animals are moving in response to recent changes in climate. As temperatures rise, ecosystems with ‘nowhere to go’, such as mountains, are considered to be more threatened. However, species survival may depend as much on keeping pace with moving climates as the climate’s ultimate persistence. Here we present a new index of the velocity of temperature change (km yr-1), derived from spatial gradients (°C km-1) and multimodel ensemble forecasts of rates of temperature… 
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TLDR
There was a larger temperature lag (by 3.1 times) between the climate and plant community composition in lowland forests than in highland forests, and the explanation lies in the following properties of lowland, as compared to highland, forests: the higher proportion of species with greater ability for local persistence as the climate warms, the reduced opportunity for short-distance escapes, the greater habitat fragmentation.
The relative importance of deforestation, precipitation change, and temperature sensitivity in determining the future distributions and diversity of Amazonian plant species
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