The vault complex

@article{vanZon2003TheVC,
  title={The vault complex},
  author={Arend van Zon and Marieke H. Mossink and Rik J. Scheper and Pieter Sonneveld and Erik A. C. Wiemer},
  journal={Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS},
  year={2003},
  volume={60},
  pages={1828-1837}
}
Vaults are large ribonucleoprotein particles found in eukaryotic cells. They are composed of multiple copies of a Mr 100,000 major vault protein and two minor vault proteins of Mr 193,000 and 240,000, as well as small untranslated RNAs of 86–141 bases. The vault components are arranged into a highly characteristic hollow barrel-like structure of 35 × 65 nm in size. Vaults are predominantly localized in the cytoplasm where they may associate with cytoskeletal elements. A small fraction of vaults… 
Characterization of MVP and VPARP assembly into vault ribonucleoprotein complexes.
Vaults and the major vault protein: Novel roles in signal pathway regulation and immunity
TLDR
The current knowledge on MVP and vaults is reviewed with focus on regulatory functions in intracellular signal transduction and immune defence and the definition of precise vault functions is reviewed.
Nuclear localization of the major vault protein in U373 cells
TLDR
The results further support the notion that part of the cellular MVP can enter the nucleus, and that about 5% of the MVP in U373 cells is localized inside the nucleus.
Expression of the Major Vault Protein (MVP) and Cellular Vault Particles in Fish
TLDR
It is shown that vaults are distributed throughout cells of fish lymphoid cells, with nuclear and plasma membrane aggregations in some cells, and MVP is highly expressed in liver neoplastic lesions in Atlantic killifish collected at the Atlantic Wood USA‐EPA superfund site on the southern branch of the Elizabeth River, VA.
Movement of vault particles visualized by GFP-tagged major vault protein
TLDR
Video microscopy indicated that, whereas the majority of vault particles were stationary, some individual vault particles moved rapidly, consistent with the action of a microtubule-based or actin-based molecular motor.
Vaults are dynamically unconstrained cytoplasmic nanoparticles capable of half vault exchange.
TLDR
Fluorescence resonance energy transfer was observed from polyethylene glycol fused hybrid cells that expressed either CFP or YFP labeled vaults, indicating that vaults can exchange major vault protein (MVP) subunits in vivo, and suggests a means whereby vault can functionally interact with their cellular environment and deliver materials packaged within their interior.
Vault mobility depends in part on microtubules and vaults can be recruited to the nuclear envelope.
Evolution of vault RNAs.
TLDR
A systematic and comprehensive analysis of this rapidly evolving class of ncRNAs in deuterostomes is reported, providing a comprehensive collection of computationally predicted vtRNA genes.
vtRNA2-1/nc886 Produces a Small RNA That Contributes to Its Tumor Suppression Action through the microRNA Pathway in Prostate Cancer
TLDR
The findings suggest that vtRNA2-1/nc886 and its processed product snc886-3p are synthesized in prostate cells, exerting a tumor suppressor action.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 80 REFERENCES
Evidence that vault ribonucleoprotein particles localize to the nuclear pore complex.
TLDR
The present study demonstrates that vaults specifically associate with nuclei by both immunoblotting and immunofluorescence, and confirmed that vault associate with the nuclear envelope in tissue sections and with NPCs of isolated nuclei.
Vaults: Large cytoplasmic RNP's that associate with cytoskeletal elements
TLDR
Electron microscopy reveals that vaults purified from these diverse species are similar both in their dimensions and morphology (Fig. 1).
Vaults. II. Ribonucleoprotein structures are highly conserved among higher and lower eukaryotes
TLDR
The isolation of vaults from numerous species is reported and it is shown that vaults appear to be ubiquitous among eukaryotes, including mammals, amphibians and Xenopus laevis, avians, and the lower Eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum.
RNA location and modeling of a WD40 repeat domain within the vault.
TLDR
To locate the position of the vRNA, vaults were treated with RNases, and cryo-electron microscopy was performed on the resulting complexes, revealing the v RNA to be at the ends of the vault caps.
Characterization of the sea urchin major vault protein: a possible role for vault ribonucleoprotein particles in nucleocytoplasmic transport.
TLDR
The major vault protein in sea urchins is identified as a 107-kDa polypeptide that copurifies with microtubules and ribosomes that is present throughout the cytoplasm in eggs and embryos and in the nucleus in adult somatic cells.
Vaults. III. Vault ribonucleoprotein particles open into flower-like structures with octagonal symmetry
TLDR
A structural model is proposed that predicts the stoichiometry of vault proteins and RNA, defines vault dimer-monomer interactions, and describes two possible modes for unfolding of vaults into flowers, likely to play a role in vault function.
Multiple Human Vault RNAs
TLDR
The findings suggest that vaults bind the RNA molecules with different affinities in different situations, and the ratio in which the vault RNAs are associated with vaults might be of functional importance.
Vaults and Telomerase Share a Common Subunit, TEP1*
TLDR
It is shown that while TEP1 is a component of the vault particle, vaults have no detectable telomerase activity, suggesting that TEP 1 may play a common role in some aspect of ribonucleoprotein structure, function, or assembly.
...
...