The different vascular phenotypes found in hypertension comprise different aspects. They may be clinical, diagnostic, structural, mechanical, functional, cellular and extracellular, signaling and molecular, proteomic, and gene expression phenotypes. In this manuscript the emphasis will be on the various structure, mechanics, dysfunction, and cell and signaling changes that can be demonstrated in hypertension, and particularly in human hypertension. The phenotype relates to the natural history of hypertension, increasingly elucidated on the basis of cohort studies. The evolution from pre-hypertension to diastolic, systolic, and systo-diastolic hypertension may have a vascular substratum that could explain, in part, the prevalence of each of these phenotypes. The potential for intervention to prevent the passage from pre-hypertension to hypertension thanks to therapies that modulate the development of vascular remodeling is highlighted.