The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital

@article{Costanza1997TheVO,
  title={The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital},
  author={Robert Costanza and R. C. D'arge and Rudolf de Groot and Stephen B. Farber and Monica Grasso and Bruce M. Hannon and Karin E. Limburg and Shahid Naeem and Robert V. O'Neill and Jos{\'e} M. Paruelo and Robert G. Raskin and Paul C. Sutton and Marjan van den Belt},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1997},
  volume={387},
  pages={253-260}
}
The services of ecological systems and the natural capital stocks that produce them are critical to the functioning of the Earth's life-support system. They contribute to human welfare, both directly and indirectly, and therefore represent part of the total economic value of the planet. We have estimated the current economic value of 17 ecosystem services for 16 biomes, based on published studies and a few original calculations. For the entire biosphere, the value (most of which is outside the… 
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