The vagus nerve modulates BDNF expression and neurogenesis in the hippocampus

  title={The vagus nerve modulates BDNF expression and neurogenesis in the hippocampus},
  author={Olivia F O'Leary and Ebere Sunny Ogbonnaya and Daniela Felice and Brunno Rocha Levone and Lorraine C. Conroy and Patrick Fitzgerald and Javier A. Bravo and Paul Forsythe and John Bienenstock and Timothy G. Dinan and John F. Cryan},
  journal={European Neuropsychopharmacology},

Roles of Gut Microbiota in the Regulation of Hippocampal Plasticity, Inflammation, and Hippocampus-Dependent Behaviors

Genomic and neurochemical analyses revealed significant alterations in genes and amino acids in the hippocampus of AD subjects following a remarkable shift in the gut microbiota, which could be potentially applied to prevent or treat hippocampus-based memory impairment and neuropsychiatric disorders such as AD.

Vagus nerve stimulation and Neurotrophins: a biological psychiatric perspective

Gut vagal sensory signaling regulates hippocampus function through multi-order pathways

It is shown that selective GI vagal sensory/afferent ablation in rats impairs HPC-dependent episodic and spatial memory, effects associated with reduced HPC neurotrophic and neurogenesis markers, thereby identifying a previously unknown role for the gut–brain axis in memory control.

The Influence of Gut Microbiota on Neurogenesis: Evidence and Hopes

The available information regarding the influence of the gut microbiota on neurogenesis is summarized, the possible underlying mechanisms are analyzed, and the potential implications of this emerging knowledge for the fight against neurodegeneration and brain ageing are discussed.

Gut Microbiota Regulate Astrocytic Functions in the Brain: Possible Therapeutic Consequences

The most recent advances concerning the complex connections between astrocytes and gut microbiota, which are involved in the immune, neurotransmission and neuroendocrine pathways, are discussed.

Identifying the Role of Vasopressin and Oxytocin in the Microbiota-Gut-Brain-Behavior Axis

Support is provided to the hypothesis that microbiota alter the vasopressin and oxytocin systems through an immune-mediated pathway to alter the behavior of both mouse models and supports the use of T5KO mice in investigating the interplay between chronic, low-grade inflammation and psychiatric disorders.

The role of the gut microbiome in the development of schizophrenia

Role of Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis in Regulating Dopaminergic Signaling

Understanding the role of gut microbiota in modulating dopamine activity and bioavailability both in the periphery and in the central nervous system can help identify new therapeutic targets as well as optimize available methods to prevent, delay, or restore dopaminergic deficits in neurologic and metabolic disorders.

The Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis.

Future studies will focus on understanding the mechanisms underlying the microbiota-gut-brain axis and attempt to elucidate microbial-based intervention and therapeutic strategies for neuropsychiatric disorders.



Chronic vagus nerve stimulation induces neuronal plasticity in the rat hippocampus.

Both chronic and acute VNS induced persistent changes in hippocampal neurons that may play a key role in the therapeutic efficacy of VNS, but these changes were not associated with evident behavioural alterations characteristic of an antidepressant or anxiolytic action.

Hippocampal plasticity after a vagus nerve injury in the rat

Findings show that damage to the subdiaphragmatic vagus in adult rats is followed by microglia activation and long-lasting changes in the dentate gyrus, leading to alteration of neurogenesis.

Adult microbiota‐deficient mice have distinct dendritic morphological changes: differential effects in the amygdala and hippocampus

It is suggested that the microbiota is required for the normal gross morphology and ultrastructure of the amygdala and hippocampus and that this neural remodelling may contribute to the maladaptive stress responsivity and behavioural profile observed in GF mice.

BDNF and synaptic plasticity, cognitive function, and dysfunction.

Converging evidence now strongly suggest that deficits in BDNF signaling contribute to the pathogenesis of several major diseases and disorders such as Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease and depression, and manipulating BDNF pathways represents a viable treatment approach to a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Neurogenesis, inflammation and behavior

Regulation of Neurogenesis by Neurotrophins during Adulthood: Expected and Unexpected Roles

Current understanding of neurotrophin modulation of adult neurogenesis in both the SVZ and SGZ is reviewed, and data supporting a variety of roles for neurotrophins/neurotrophin receptors in different scenarios are compiled, including both expected and unexpected functions.