The vagus nerve modulates BDNF expression and neurogenesis in the hippocampus

  title={The vagus nerve modulates BDNF expression and neurogenesis in the hippocampus},
  author={Olivia F O'Leary and Ebere Sunny Ogbonnaya and Daniela Felice and Brunno Rocha Levone and Lorraine C. Conroy and Patrick Fitzgerald and Javier A. Bravo and Paul Forsythe and John Bienenstock and Timothy G. Dinan and John F. Cryan},
  journal={European Neuropsychopharmacology},

Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis Regulation of Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

The current evidence demonstrating the gut microbiota’s ability to influence adult hippocampal neurogenesis, including mechanisms driven through immune pathways, microbial metabolites, endocrine signalling, and the nervous system are summarized to postulate implications for these effects in disease onset and treatment.

Roles of Gut Microbiota in the Regulation of Hippocampal Plasticity, Inflammation, and Hippocampus-Dependent Behaviors

Genomic and neurochemical analyses revealed significant alterations in genes and amino acids in the hippocampus of AD subjects following a remarkable shift in the gut microbiota, which could be potentially applied to prevent or treat hippocampus-based memory impairment and neuropsychiatric disorders such as AD.

Vagus nerve stimulation and Neurotrophins: a biological psychiatric perspective

Gut vagal sensory signaling regulates hippocampus function through multi-order pathways

It is shown that selective GI vagal sensory/afferent ablation in rats impairs HPC-dependent episodic and spatial memory, effects associated with reduced HPC neurotrophic and neurogenesis markers, thereby identifying a previously unknown role for the gut–brain axis in memory control.

The Influence of Gut Microbiota on Neurogenesis: Evidence and Hopes

The available information regarding the influence of the gut microbiota on neurogenesis is summarized, the possible underlying mechanisms are analyzed, and the potential implications of this emerging knowledge for the fight against neurodegeneration and brain ageing are discussed.

Gut Microbiota Regulate Astrocytic Functions in the Brain: Possible Therapeutic Consequences

The most recent advances concerning the complex connections between astrocytes and gut microbiota, which are involved in the immune, neurotransmission and neuroendocrine pathways, are discussed.

Identifying the Role of Vasopressin and Oxytocin in the Microbiota-Gut-Brain-Behavior Axis

Support is provided to the hypothesis that microbiota alter the vasopressin and oxytocin systems through an immune-mediated pathway to alter the behavior of both mouse models and supports the use of T5KO mice in investigating the interplay between chronic, low-grade inflammation and psychiatric disorders.

Identification of hepatosensitive region and their neural connections in the hippocampus of rats.

The hippocampal CA3 area of rats may contain a hepatosensitive region that plays important roles in the regulation of liver and other organ function that may receive input from the LHA, PC, and LC.

The role of the gut microbiome in the development of schizophrenia




Chronic vagus nerve stimulation induces neuronal plasticity in the rat hippocampus.

Both chronic and acute VNS induced persistent changes in hippocampal neurons that may play a key role in the therapeutic efficacy of VNS, but these changes were not associated with evident behavioural alterations characteristic of an antidepressant or anxiolytic action.

Hippocampal plasticity after a vagus nerve injury in the rat

Findings show that damage to the subdiaphragmatic vagus in adult rats is followed by microglia activation and long-lasting changes in the dentate gyrus, leading to alteration of neurogenesis.

Adult microbiota‐deficient mice have distinct dendritic morphological changes: differential effects in the amygdala and hippocampus

It is suggested that the microbiota is required for the normal gross morphology and ultrastructure of the amygdala and hippocampus and that this neural remodelling may contribute to the maladaptive stress responsivity and behavioural profile observed in GF mice.

BDNF and synaptic plasticity, cognitive function, and dysfunction.

Converging evidence now strongly suggest that deficits in BDNF signaling contribute to the pathogenesis of several major diseases and disorders such as Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease and depression, and manipulating BDNF pathways represents a viable treatment approach to a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve

Chronic treatment with L. rhamnosus induced region-dependent alterations in GABAB1b mRNA in the brain with increases in cortical regions and concomitant reductions in expression in the hippocampus, amygdala, and locus coeruleus, in comparison with control-fed mice, highlighting the important role of bacteria in the bidirectional communication of the gut–brain axis.

Neurogenesis, inflammation and behavior