The utility of paradoxical components in biological circuits.

  title={The utility of paradoxical components in biological circuits.},
  author={Yuval Hart and Uri Alon},
  journal={Molecular cell},
  volume={49 2},
A recurring theme in biological circuits is the existence of components that are antagonistically bifunctional, in the sense that they simultaneously have two opposing effects on the same target or biological process. Examples include bifunctional enzymes that carry out two opposing reactions such as phosphorylating and dephosphorylating the same target, regulators that activate and also repress a gene in circuits called incoherent feedforward loops, and cytokines that signal immune cells to… CONTINUE READING
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