The use of the dog-whelk, Nucella lapillus , as an indicator of tributyltin (TBT) contamination

@article{Gibbs1987TheUO,
  title={The use of the dog-whelk, Nucella lapillus , as an indicator of tributyltin (TBT) contamination},
  author={Peter Edwin Gibbs and Geoffrey W. Bryan and P. L. Pascoe and Gary R. Burt},
  journal={Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom},
  year={1987},
  volume={67},
  pages={507-523}
}
The term ‘imposex’ was coined by Smith (1971) to describe the superimposition of male characters onto unparasitized and parasitized females of gonochoristic gastropods. In Nassarius obsoletus (Say) the development of imposex results in the female having one or more of the following characters: (1) a penis with a duct leading to (2) a vas deferens which passes back to the ventral channel of the capsule gland and (3) convolution of the normally straight gonadial oviduct (Smith, 1980). Imposex in… 
Sex Change in the Female Dog-Whelk, Nucella Lapillus , Induced by Tributyltin from Antifouling Paints
TLDR
Both field and laboratory observations have provided conclusive evidence that imposex in N. lapillus is initiated by tributyltin (TBT), used as a biocide in antifouling paints, at concentrations in water of less than 1 ng Sn/1.
A Male genital defect in the dog-whelk, Nucella lapillus (Neogastropoda), favouring survival in a TBT-polluted area
TLDR
The evidence points to Dumpton Syndrome being a genetic disorder which has lessened the sterilizing effect of imposex and thereby has permitted the survival of this isolated enclave in an area of high TBT pollution.
The Dog – Whelk, Nucella Lapillus (L.) On The Rocky Shores Of Gower Peninsula, U.K. After The 1987 Tributyltin Restrictive Legislation.
The occurrence of imposex female Nucella lapillus (L.) on the Gower Peninsula in 1992 with little development of the vas deferens (VDS) and very small relative penis size (RPS) suggests that,
The Effects of Tributyltin on Dogwhelks (Nucella Lapillus) From Scottish Coastal Waters
TLDR
This phenomenon, first reported by Blaber (1970) in dogwhelks from the Plymouth area, and later termed 'imposex' (Smith, 1981), is now recognised as the most sensitive and straightforward way to identify contamination of coastal areas by TBT.
The effects of tributyltin (TBT) accumulation on adult dog-whelks, Nucella lapillus : long-term field and laboratory experiments
TLDR
Populations of the gastropod, Nucella lapillus (L.), normally one of the commonest of rocky-shore macroinvertebrates, have recently suffered from declining numbers and that imposex was almost certainly caused by tributyltin (TBT) compounds leached from ships' antifouling paints.
Reproductive Failure in the Gastropod Nucella Lapillus Associated with Imposex Caused by Tributyltin Pollution: A Review
TLDR
The evidence that TBT pollution is responsible for the disappearance of N. lapillus in areas close to centers of boating activity is summarized.
Aphally and imposex in Nucella lapillus from Galicia (NW Spain): incidence, geographical distribution and consequences for the biomonitoring of TBT contamination
TLDR
A modified version of the Vas Deferens Sequence (VDS) schemes currently devoted to assess the intensity of masculinization of female N. lapillus is proposed, which attempts to accommodate the variants in imposex development observed in a DS-affected population whilst remaining both simple and comparable with previously applied schemes.
Appearance of a genetically-based pollution resistance in a marine gastropod, Nucella lapillus, in south-west Brittany: a new case of Dumpton syndrome
TLDR
DS is now, for the first time, observed at some locations where present TBT levels are low and some normal females lack penis development, indirect tools such as molecular probe are now needed to further survey those areas where DS and TBT pollution may interact as, for example, in south-west Brittany.
The morphological expression of imposex in Hinia reticulata (Gastropoda: Buccinidae): a potential indicator of tributultin pollution
TLDR
Based on the way imposex develops in this species the VDS is recommended as the most valid index for TBT biomonitoring and only in highly polluted areas should the uncubed RPS be used as a second index.
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References

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Reproductive Failure in Populations of the Dog-Whelk, Nucella Lapillus , Caused by Imposex Induced by Tributyltin from Antifouling Paints
TLDR
It would appear that the accumulation of aborted capsules within the pallial oviduct eventually causes the premature death of the female and is evident from the high incidence of females containing aborted capsules in declining populations close to sources of tributyltin contamination.
The effects of tributyltin (TBT) accumulation on adult dog-whelks, Nucella lapillus : long-term field and laboratory experiments
TLDR
Populations of the gastropod, Nucella lapillus (L.), normally one of the commonest of rocky-shore macroinvertebrates, have recently suffered from declining numbers and that imposex was almost certainly caused by tributyltin (TBT) compounds leached from ships' antifouling paints.
The decline of the gastropod Nucella lapillus around south-west England: evidence for the effect of tributyltin from antifouling paints
TLDR
The incidence of ‘imposex’, the induction of male sex characters in the female, is widespread, that all populations are affected to some degree and that the phenomenon is most prevalent along the south (Channel) coast.
Heavy metal levels inNucella lapillus (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) from sites with normal and penis-bearing females from New England
TLDR
The purpose of this study was to determine if there were differences in metal levels in the snail populations studied by Pondick, with particular attention to metals associated with boating activity, and to investigate the presence of a penial duct.
Male characteristics on female mud snails caused by antifouling bottom paints
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TLDR
The laboratory studies have identified a causative factor of the anatomical abnormalities common near yacht basins in the natural environment and provide a rare, if not unique, example of a chemical agent which causes the appearance of superfluous anatomical features in an animal.
The adaptive significance of aggregation behaviour in the dogwhelk Nucella lapillus (L.)
TLDR
Winter aggregations protected dogwhelks from dislodgment when their ability to regain a foothold was reduced by low temperatures, while pre-breeding aggregations brought the sexes together for fertilization, but the permanence of adult winter aggregations suggested that reproductive activity may have been occurring within them.