The use of biomarkers in environmental monitoring programmes.

  title={The use of biomarkers in environmental monitoring programmes.},
  author={Paul K S Lam and John S. Gray},
  journal={Marine pollution bulletin},
  volume={46 2},
The monitoring of biological effects has recently become an integral component of environmental monitoring programmes as a supplement to the commonly used contaminant monitoring. Over the years, many biomarkers have been developed that are claimed to be efficient at providing an early warning of deleterious effects on biological systems and for estimating biological effects due to contaminants. Although biomarkers are potentially useful, they have a number of important limitations. In this… CONTINUE READING