The urothelium in overactive bladder: passive bystander or active participant?

The urothelium was once purported to be a passive membrane. However, a growing body of evidence indicates that the urothelium actively participates in sensory functions, expressing various receptors and ion channels, as well as releasing neurotransmitters in response to stimuli. Vanilloid receptors, P2X3 purinergic receptors, adenosine triphosphate, nitric… CONTINUE READING