The uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate acts as a pro- or antioxidant on LDL oxidation.

@article{Praschberger2014TheUT,
  title={The uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate acts as a pro- or antioxidant on LDL oxidation.},
  author={Monika Praschberger and Marlen Hermann and Juergen Wanner and Leo Jirovetz and Markus Exner and Stylianos Kapiotis and Bernhard M. K. Gmeiner and Hilde Laggner},
  journal={Free radical research},
  year={2014},
  volume={48 6},
  pages={641-8}
}
Uremic toxins have been shown to play a role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) associated oxidative stress. Oxidative stress and inflammation have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in uraemia. The oxidative modification of LDL may play a role in early atherogenesis. Enhanced LDL oxidation has been found in uremic patients which may account for accelerated atherosclerosis observed in CKD. The uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate (IS) has been reported to exert oxidative and… CONTINUE READING