The updated experimental proteinoid model

  title={The updated experimental proteinoid model},
  author={Sidney W. Fox and Tadayoshi Nakashima and Aleksander T. Przybylski and Robert M. Syren},
  journal={International Journal of Quantum Chemistry},
The experimental proteinoid model includes new results indicating that polymers sufficiently rich in basic amino acid catalyze the synthesis of peptides from ATP and amino acids and of oligonucleotides from ATP. The need for simulation syntheses of amino acids yielding significant proportions of basic amino acids is now in focus. The modeled simultaneous protocellular synthesis of peptides and polynucleotides is part of a more comprehensive proposal for the origin of the coded genetic mechanism… Expand
Engineering and use of proteinoid polymers and nanocapsules containing agrochemicals
Using genetically modified plants, which express fluorescent protein and are responsive to the level of auxin, the possibility to deliver encapsulated agrochemicals into cells is demonstrated and it is illustrated that the proteinoid NPs are non-toxic to human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and apart from P(KEf) also to lettuce plants. Expand
Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(RGD) Proteinoid Polymers and NIR Fluorescent Nanoparticles of Optimal d,l-Configuration for Drug-Delivery Applications—In Vitro Study
The P(RdGD) polymer configuration is the polymer of choice for use as a targeted drug carrier to areas of angiogenesis, such as in tumors, wounds, or cuts, as demonstrated using an in vitro scratch assay. Expand
Engineering of New UV-Blocking Hollow Proteinoid Nanoparticles of Narrow Size Distribution Containing All-trans Retinoic Acid for Biomedical Applications
All-trans retinoic acid (at-RA), the most active form of vitamin A, is known to be highly beneficial in dermatology. At-RA can reduce acne vulgaris symptoms and improve the skin appearanceExpand
Engineering of Doxorubicin-Encapsulating and TRAIL-Conjugated Poly(RGD) Proteinoid Nanocapsules for Drug Delivery Applications
P(RGD) proteinoids and proteinoid nanocapsules (NCs) based on D-arginine, glycine, and L-aspartic acid were synthesized and characterized for targeted tumor therapy and demonstrated as effective as free Dox and TRAIL and PEGylated NCs were less effective. Expand
Designed proteinoid polymers and nanoparticles encapsulating risperidone for enhanced antipsychotic activity
A new drug delivery system based on proteinoid NPs is described to explore the possibility of improving drug efficacy and may potentially increase drug efficiency by reducing dosage and side effects. Expand
Engineering of near infrared fluorescent proteinoid-poly(L-lactic acid) particles for in vivo colon cancer detection
A significant advantage of NIR fluorescence imaging using NIR fluorescent P(EF-PLLA) nanoparticles over colonoscopy is suggested, for both detection and therapy of colon cancer. Expand
Synthesis and characterization of bioactive conjugated near-infrared fluorescent proteinoid-poly(L-lactic acid) hollow nanoparticles for optical detection of colon cancer
Specific colon tumor detection by the NIR fluorescent P(EF-PLLA) nanoparticles was demonstrated in a chicken embryo model and it is planned to encapsulate a cancer drug such as doxorubicin within these nanoparticles for therapeutic applications. Expand
On interplay between excitability and geometry
This work numerically studies how excitation wave-fronts behave in a geometrically constrained medium and how the wave- fronts explore a random planar graph and uncovers how excitability controls propagation of excitation in angled branches, influences arrest of excite entering a sudden expansion, and determines patterns of traversing of a randomPlanar graph by an excitation waves. Expand
A Bibliography of Publications in The International Journal of Quantum Chemistry: 1980{1989
(e, 2e) [AM83b, TMC84]. (n−) [MOT83]. (N − 1) [Mor89]. + [AM82, BNK86, Bow86, ES81, GT86, GT87a, GM86a, KU80, KS89b, KM89b, LB83, RBL84, SBE87, SS84b, SS87, YKZ89]. 1/Z [PS84]. $104.75 [Pic83b]. 12Expand


The assembly and properties of protobiological structures: the beginnings of cellular peptide synthesis.
New data indicate that lysine-rich proteinoids have the ability to catalyze the synthesis of peptide bonds from a variety of amino acids and ATP, inferring that the first protocells on Earth already had a number of biological types of activity. Expand
Synthesis of peptides from amino acids and ATP with lysine-rich proteinoid
The ATP-aided syntheses of peptides in aqueous solution occur with several types of proteinous amino acid, and the pH optimum for the synthesis is about 11, but is appreciable below 8 and above 13. Expand
From proteinoid microsphere to contemporary cell: Formation of internucleotide and peptide bonds by proteinoid particles
These results model the origin from a protocell of a more contemporary type of cell able to synthesize its own polyamino acids and polynucleotides and explain in part the origin of the genetic code and mechanism. Expand
Origins of biological information and the genetic code
  • S. Fox
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
  • 2005
The origin and early evolution of information has been traced as a consequence of the capacity for selective interactions by the macromolecules and systems produced in the primordial sequence, and it is suggested that only limited kinds of informational mechanisms could have emerged from their precursor mechanisms. Expand
A model for the origin of stable protocells in a primitive alkaline ocean.
When a mixture of the eighteen proteinous amino acids are suitably heated in the dry state with seawater salts, a copolyamino acid results. One fraction of this polymer is found, through isoelectricExpand
Cyanamide mediated syntheses of peptides containing histidine and hydrophobic amino acids
SummaryUsing the model of a primitive earth evaporation pond, the synthesis of three histidyl peptides in yields of up to 11% was demonstrated when aqueous solutions of histidine, leucine, ATP,Expand
Formation of peptides from amino acids by single or multiple additions of ATP to suspensions of nucleoproteinoid microparticles.
The rate of conversion of amino acid to peptide is a function of whether ATP is added in a single batch or in repeated amounts adding to the same amount as in the single batch, as well as a relatively rapid initial rate of decay of ATP in the system. Expand
Synthesis of oligonucleotides by proteinoid microspheres acting on ATP
The results with the particles provide a model for the origin of cellular Synthesis of polynucleotide and strengthen the concept of cells prior to contemporary nucleic acid and protein. Expand
Origin of organic matter in early solar system—IV. Amino acids: Confirmation of catalytic synthesis by mass spectrometry
Abstract Catalytic synthesis of the following amino acids from CO, ND 3 and D 2 has been confirmed mass spectrometrically: glycine, alanine, aspartic and glutamic acids, histidine, lysine, ornithine,Expand
Origin of organic matter in early solar system—III. Amino acids: Catalytic synthesis
When CO, H2 and NH3 are allowed to react at 200–700°C in the presence of nickel, alumina, or clay catalysts, amino acids are found among the products in yields of 0·-0·1 per cent. Purines,Expand