The underlying mechanism of prodromal PD: insights from the parasympathetic nervous system and the olfactory system

Neurodegeneration of Parkinson’s disease (PD) starts in an insidious manner, 30–50% of dopaminergic neurons have been lost in the substantia nigra before clinical diagnosis. Prodromal stage of the disease, during which the disease pathology has started but is insufficient to result in clinical manifestations, offers a valuable window for disease-modifying… (More)