The treatment of super-refractory status epilepticus: a critical review of available therapies and a clinical treatment protocol.
This paper reports the first systematic review of uncommon causes of status epilepticus reported in the literature between 1990 and 2008. Uncommon causes are defined as those not listed in the main epidemiological studies of status epilepticus. 181 causes were identified. These were easily categorised into 5 specific aetiological categories: immunological disorders, mitochondrial disorders, infectious diseases, genetic disorders and drugs/toxins. A sixth category of 'other causes' has also been included. Knowledge of these causes is important for clinical management and treatment, and also for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of status epilepticus.