The uncertain future of protected lands and waters

  title={The uncertain future of protected lands and waters},
  author={Rachel E Golden Kroner and Siyu Qin and C. Cook and R. Krithivasan and S. M. Pack and Oscar D Bonilla and Kerry Anne Cort-Kansinally and Bruno Coutinho and Mingmin Feng and Mar{\'i}a Isabel Mart{\'i}nez Garc{\'i}a and Yifan He and Chris J. Kennedy and Clotilde Lebreton and J. Ledezma and T. Lovejoy and David A. Luther and Yohan Parmanand and C. Ru{\'i}z-Agudelo and E. Yerena and Vilisa Mor{\'o}n Zambrano and M. Mascia},
  pages={881 - 886}
Not all that protected, after all The intention of creating protected natural areas is to protect them in the long term from destructive human activities. Governments do not always follow these intentions, however, and often legally remove protections and reduce the extent of protected areas. Golden Kroner et al. looked across the United States and Amazonia over the past 200 years and found more than 700 such changes, two-thirds of which have occurred since the year 2000 (see the Perspective by… Expand
Losing ground in protected areas?
There are few wild spaces left to offset these losses with new parks, and biodiversity itself is irreplaceable, so reexamining the goals of protected areas and recognizing the gap between the official rules and actual management is needed. Expand
Global Analysis of Durable Policies for Free-Flowing River Protections
Freshwater ecosystems are poorly represented in global networks of protected areas. This situation underscores an urgent need for the creation, application, and expansion of durable (long-term andExpand
Area-based conservation in the twenty-first century.
To be more successful after 2020, area-based conservation must contribute more effectively to meeting global biodiversity goals-ranging from preventing extinctions to retaining the most-intact ecosystems-and must better collaborate with the many Indigenous peoples, community groups and private initiatives that are central to the successful conservation of biodiversity. Expand
Early warning sign of forest loss in protected areas
As humanity is facing the double challenge of species extinctions and climate change, designating parts of forests as protected areas is a key conservation strategy.1-4 Protected areas, encompassingExpand
COVID-era policies and economic recovery plans: are governments building back better for protected and conserved areas?
The COVID-19 pandemic is having a major impact on conservation policies and practice at multiple scales, including protected and conserved areas (PCAs). There is a need to understand the implicationsExpand
What Drives the Erasure of Protected Areas? Evidence from across the Brazilian Amazon
Protected areas (PAs) are a widely used strategy for conserving forests and ecosystem services. When PAs succeed in deterring economic activities that degrade forests, the impacts include more forestExpand
Enabling conditions for the implementation and conservation outcomes of a private nature reserve
Expanding conservation efforts to private land is paramount to halt biodiversity loss and achieve global conservation targets Individual landowners can play disproportionately important roles byExpand
Public Forests Under Threat in the Brazilian Amazon: Strategies for Coping Shifts in Environmental Policies and Regulations
Brazil has 310.5 million hectares of public forests, almost 92% of which in the Amazon. Since the 1980s, Brazilian environmental legislation has been improving and, along with other measures, hasExpand
Effectiveness of protected areas in conserving tropical forest birds
It is shown that in most of the hotspots examined this benefit is driven by protected areas preventing both forest loss and degradation, which provides evidence that, on average, protected areas contribute measurably to conserving bird species in some of the world’s most diverse and threatened terrestrial ecosystems. Expand
Conservation of Tropical Forests in the Anthropocene
Realizing this better future for tropical forests and people will require formalisation of land tenure for local and indigenous communities, better-enforced environmental laws, the widescale roll-out of payments for ecosystem service schemes, and sustainable intensification of under-yielding farmland, as well as global-scale societal changes. Expand


Land-use and land-cover change shape the sustainability and impacts of protected areas
Overall the results suggest that enhancing PAs’ ecological impacts enhances their legal durability and suggests the need for policymakers to reexamine conventional wisdom regarding PAs. Expand
Exploring the Permanence of Conservation Covenants
Conservation on private land is a growing part of international efforts to stem the decline of biodiversity. In many countries, private land conservation policy often supports in perpetuity covenantsExpand
What Drives Downsizing of Protected Areas?: A Case Study of Amazon National Park
Researchers, NGOs, and the Brazilin government have paid significant attention to the preservation of Brazil’s natural landscapes. As a result, more than 25 million ha have been added to the systemExpand
Effectiveness of the network of protected areas of the South Caucasus at representing terrestrial ecosystems after the dissolution of the Soviet Union
This work utilized the PA downgrading, downsizing and degazettement (PADDD) conceptual framework and the gap analysis approach to assess how changes in the PAs of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia between 1991 and 2014 have affected the representation of biodiversity. Expand
Less protection for better conservation? A politicised relationship between a city and its protected area in the vicinity of Nevado de Toluca (Mexico)
The Nevado de Toluca Mountain is a protected area located near Toluca, the fifth largest city in Mexico. In 2013, Nevado de Toluca National Park was downgraded to an Area of Protection for Flora andExpand
Protected area downgrading, downsizing, and degazettement (PADDD) and its conservation implications
Preliminary investigation of PADDD challenges longstanding assumptions underlying conservation policy and practice, including efforts to reduce deforestation and forest degradation (REDD), and underscores the need for resilient and robust conservation strategies. Expand
Effects of protected area downsizing on habitat fragmentation in Yosemite National Park (USA), 1864 – 2014
Protected area downgrading, downsizing, and degazettement (PADDD) has been documented worldwide, but its impacts on biodiversity are poorly understood. To fill this knowledge gap, we reviewedExpand
Protected area downgrading, downsizing, and degazettement (PADDD) in Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean, 1900-2010
Abstract National parks, nature reserves, and other protected areas (PAs) are the centerpiece of efforts to conserve biodiversity. Conservation policy and practice assume that PAs are permanentExpand
Protected area downgrading, downsizing, and degazettement (PADDD) in the Amazon
Abstract Protected areas (PAs) are a cornerstone of biodiversity conservation. Brazil, home to one-third of the world's tropical forests and 12% of its PAs, is a global leader in PA creation andExpand
Peri-urban conservation in the Mondah forest of Libreville, Gabon: Red List assessments of endemic plant species, and avoiding protected area downsizing
Abstract Urban development is an increasing threat to the integrity of formerly remote protected areas, in some cases resulting in their downgrading, downsizing or degazetting. One-quarter ofExpand