The tripeptide feG reduces endotoxin‐provoked perturbation of intestinal motility and inflammation

  title={The tripeptide feG reduces endotoxin‐provoked perturbation of intestinal motility and inflammation},
  author={Ronald D. Mathison and Pierrette Lo and D. T. M. Tan and Brent Scott and Joseph Davison},
  journal={Neurogastroenterology \& Motility},
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‐induced intestinal endotoxaemia perturbs motility and causes activation and influx of inflammatory cells into the muscle tissue. Because rat submandibular gland peptide T (SGP‐T; Thr‐Asp‐Ile‐Phe‐Glu‐Gly‐Gly), its carboxyl‐terminal fragment tripeptide, FEG (Phe‐Glu‐Gly) and its D‐isomeric analogue, feG, modulate intestinal anaphylactic reactions, we examined whether these peptides also modulate LPS‐induced intestinal endotoxaemia in conscious rats. The disruption of the… 

The tripeptide feG ameliorates systemic inflammatory responses to rat intestinal anaphylaxis

The results indicate that the tripeptide feG is a potent inhibitor of extra-gastrointestinal allergic reactions preventing both acute (30 min) and chronic (3 h or greater) inflammatory responses.

The tripeptide feG regulates the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species by neutrophils

FeG reduces the capacity of circulating neutrophils to generate intracellular ROS consequent to an allergic reaction by preventing the deregulation of PKCδ.

The tripeptide feG inhibits leukocyte adhesion

When administered in vivo, feG prevents inflammation-induced reductions in cell adhesion, as well as restoring its inhibitory effect in vitro, and appears to involve actions on αMβ2 integrin, with a possible interaction with the low affinity FcγRIII receptor (CD16).

The tripeptide analog feG ameliorates severity of acute pancreatitis in a caerulein mouse model.

It is concluded that feG ameliorates experimental AP acting at least in part by modulating ICAM-1 expression in the pancreas.

Salivary gland derived peptides as a new class of anti-inflammatory agents: review of preclinical pharmacology of C-terminal peptides of SMR1 protein

The term "Immune Selective Anti-Inflammatory Derivatives" (ImSAIDs) is proposed for salivary-derived peptides to distinguish this class of agents from corticosteroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Small Intestinal Motility

  • W. Hasler
  • Medicine
    Encyclopedia of Gastroenterology
  • 2020


Hydalcoholic extract of aerial parts of Urtica urens L has significant anti-inflammatory activity in rats induced with formalin, and percentage inhibition shown in group 3 (given extract of 100mg/kg p.o.) and 4 was 69.17% and 72.27%.

Biomedical Research 2003; 14 (1): 30-37

The key evidence leading to the discovery of the CST-SMG axis is summarized and two novel peptides were isolated from the submandibular glands of rats which appear to be the endocrine mediators of this novel immunoregulatory system.



Submandibular gland peptide‐T (SGP‐T): Modulation of endotoxic and anaphylactic shock

SGP‐T may be a prototype to a family of small peptides that modulate the immunological and smooth muscle reactions to severe inflammatory (endotoxic and anaphylactic) reactions.

Lipopolysaccharide activates the muscularis macrophage network and suppresses circular smooth muscle activity.

It is demonstrated that endotoxemia acutely activates the muscularis macrophage network, causes the extravasation of leukocytes, and results in circular muscle impairment.

Modulation of neutrophil activity by submandibular gland peptide-T (SGP-T).

Treatment with SGP-T promoted a dose-dependent recovery in the ability of neutrophils obtained from carrageenan soaked sponges to generate superoxide anion, supporting the concept that salivary glands are involved in the regulation of inflammatory responses.

Mediation of altered motility in food protein induced intestinal anaphylaxis in Hooded-Lister rat.

  • R. ScottD. Tan
  • Biology, Medicine
    Canadian journal of physiology and pharmacology
  • 1996
The altered motility and the diarrhea observed after food protein induced luminal challenge of sensitized rats is dependent upon myenteric neuronal circuitry, suggesting that activated mast cells release prostaglandins and perhaps 5-hydroxytryptamine, which stimulate the neuronal pathway.

Role of lipopolysaccharide in signaling to subepithelial polymorphonuclear leukocytes

Results implicate LPS in signaling subepithelial PMN emigration and enhancing PMN-epithelium interactions prior to and during subsequent Shigella-induced transepithelial migration.

Expression of interleukin 1β and interleukin 1β converting enzyme by intestinal macrophages in health and inflammatory bowel disease

Ac-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-CHO, a specific peptide aldehyde inhibitor of ICE, significantly reduced the amount of mature IL-1β released by isolated IBD macrophages, suggesting targeted inhibition of ICE may represent a novel form of therapy in IBD.

A novel submandibular gland peptide protects against endotoxic and anaphylactic shock.

Data indicate that submandibular glands participate in the regulation of systemic homeostasis as well as exocrine and endocrine actions that facilitate tissue repair in the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and more distal sites such as liver.

Temporal analysis of the anti-inflammatory effects of decentralization of the rat superior cervical ganglia.

The results suggest that the attenuation of anaphylaxis-induced pulmonary inflammation that occurs with decentralization of the SCG is primarily associated with downregulation of neutrophil and macrophage functions.

Intestinal epithelial cell regulation of macrophage and lymphocyte interleukin 10 expression.

Enterocytes are a responsive source of IL-10 and may play a role in modulating production of this important cytokine by the local inflammatory cells of the gut, suggesting a central role for this cytokine in regulation of the local intestinal inflammatory response.