The treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine Review.

@article{Hening1999TheTO,
  title={The treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine Review.},
  author={W. Hening and Rp Allen and Christopher J. Earley and Clete A. Kushida and Daniel L. Picchietti and M Silber},
  journal={Sleep},
  year={1999},
  volume={22 7},
  pages={
          970-99
        }
}
A task force consisting of six authors reviewed the published literature on the therapy of the restless legs syndrome or periodic limb movements in sleep available in indices through April, 1998. They selected the 45 articles for detailed review which presented original investigations of therapeutic impact on the restless legs syndrome (RLS) or periodic limb movements (PLM) and which met minimal standards. These articles dealt with a range of pharmacological and other treatment modalities… 
Restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movements in sleep, and depression.
TLDR
The relationship appears complex, with overlap between RLS- and depression-related symptoms confounding the issue, and a specific treatment approach is proposed to patients with RLS and depression symptoms.
Practice parameters for the dopaminergic treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder.
Dopaminergic agents, particularly dopamine agonists, have been used with increasing frequency in the treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder. These evidence-based
EFNS guidelines on management of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder in sleep
TLDR
The following level A recommendations can be offered: for primary RLS, cabergoline, gabapentin, pergolide, ropinirole, levodopa and rotigotine by transdermal delivery are effective in relieving the symptoms.
Treatment of restless legs syndrome.
TLDR
Based on few double-blind, randomized, controlled trials, it seems that the best options to treat restless legs syndrome patients are gabapentin and L-dopa associated to its sustained release formulation.
New paradigms in the treatment of restless legs syndrome
TLDR
Clinicians must be aware of the high prevalence of RLS, the potential for onset before age 20, and the various clinical presentations, and rely on dopamine agonists first-line therapy and provide symptom relief in 70% to 100% of patients.
Restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder.
  • K. Parker, D. Rye
  • Medicine, Psychology
    The Nursing clinics of North America
  • 2002
Restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder in the elderly.
Restless legs syndrome.
  • M. Clark
  • Medicine
    The Journal of the American Board of Family Practice
  • 2001
TLDR
A growing body of work has added to an understanding of the epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, appropriate evaluation, and effective management of restless legs syndrome, and side effects can be problematic.
An update on the dopaminergic treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder.
TLDR
The literature on levodopa, dopaminergic agonists (pergolide, pramipexoles, ropinirole, talipexole, cabergoline, piribidel, DHEC), and other dopamineergic agents (amantadine, selegiline) are reviewed.
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References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 124 REFERENCES
Dopaminergic agents in restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements of sleep: response and complications of extended treatment in 49 cases.
TLDR
The dopamine agonists L-dopa/carbidopa, bromocriptine mesylate or both were initiated in 49 patients with RLS/PLMS who sought consultation at a sleep disorders center and the > 70% long-term response is comparable to other studies in the literature.
Restless Legs Syndrome Treatment with Dopaminergic Drugs
TLDR
These dopaminergic drugs decreased the times of waking up and staying awake periods at a statistically significant level (p changed between 0.025 and 0.01, t test) compared with placebo.
The treatment of the restless leg syndrome with or without periodic leg movements in sleep.
TLDR
Propoxyphene was found less effective than L- dopa in decreasing PLMS, but some patients resistant to L-dopa may exhibit a masked therapeutic response to opioids, and there is currently no method to predict the response to any treatment modality.
A questionnaire study of 138 patients with restless legs syndrome
TLDR
A telephone survey of their symptomatology found that more than a third of the patients in each group experienced their first symptoms before the age of 20 and in the older age-onset patients, misdiagnoses also included skin irritation, arthritis, and malingering.
Treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic movements during sleep with
TLDR
Observations support the hypothesis that RLS and PMS are two manifestations of the same central sensorimotor disorder.
Immobilization tests and periodic leg movements in sleep for the diagnosis of restless leg syndrome
TLDR
The SIT has several advantages over the measure of the PLMS index; it does not require an all‐night polygraphic recording and can be administered several times a day to measure circadian fluctuation of motor restlessness.
Restless legs syndrome
TLDR
There are two major etiologic subgroups of RLS but that the two share central pathophysiologic mechanisms, and it is concluded that Levodopa and dopamine agonists were the most effective treatments.
Clinical, polysomnographic, and genetic characteristics of restless legs syndrome: A study of 133 patients diagnosed with new standard criteria
TLDR
A strong relationship was found between these complaints and polysomnographic findings; increasing sleep latency and number of awakenings and decreasing sleep efficiency were associated with worsening symptoms.
Ropinirole for restless legs syndrome
  • W. Ondo
  • Medicine
    Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society
  • 1999
TLDR
Encouraging preliminary results justify larger and more controlled trials of ropinirole in patients with RLS and further investigate the mechanisms behind the desire to move the extremities.
Moderate to severe periodic limb movement disorder in childhood and adolescence.
The purpose of this study is to review clinical features of children with moderate to severe Periodic Limb Movement Disorder (PLMD). Because of our interest in both Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) and
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