The treatment of balanitis xerotica obliterans

@article{Depasquale2000TheTO,
  title={The treatment of balanitis xerotica obliterans},
  author={Ivan Depasquale and A J Park and A Bracka},
  journal={BJU International},
  year={2000},
  volume={86}
}
Balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO), ®rst described in 1928 by Stuhmer, is now considered to be the male genital variant of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA). This common penile disease can involve the prepuce, the glans (Fig. 1) or the urethra, either individually or in any combination. BXO was regarded as an exclusively adult disease until a case was documented in a 7-year-old boy in 1962 [1]. Further reports of prepubertal BXO followed during the 1970s and currently it is recognized as a… 
Balanitis xerotica obliterans
B alanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) / lichen sclerosus of the male genitalia is a common cause of acquired phimosis, and was first described by Stuhmer in 1928 [1]. It is described in medical
[Balanitis xerotica obliterans].
TLDR
The relationship between BXO and squamous cell carcinoma of the penis was defined and the need for histological examination of the preputial specimen for a correct follow-up and for medicolegal reasons was stressed.
Balanitis xerotica obliterans: an update for clinicians
TLDR
BXO remains an important cause of phimosis in boys, with some evidence that topical steroids or immunomodulators may decrease the incidence of recurrent meatal stenosis.
Frequency of balanitis xerotica obliterans among boys with phimosis
TLDR
The research has shown that the frequency of BXO among boys with phimosis population is coherent with results of other studies, and concluded that pathohistological analisys of the foreskin is necessary to avoid false negative results after clinical examination.
Long standing balanitis xerotica obliterans resulting in renal impairment in a child
TLDR
The case of a previously well 13-year-old boy who developed obstructive renal impairment at least in part from phimosis due to BXO, and a circumcision and meatal dilatation were done.
The surgical treatment of Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans
TLDR
Steroid creams have been shown to limit the progression of the disease but do not offer a cure in the majority of cases, and Circumcision can be a curative procedure in early disease.
Balanitis xerotica obliterans in children and adolescents: a literature review and clinical series.
TLDR
BXO is a condition more common than the authors believe and they must be vigilant to find greater number of diagnoses to avoid future complications, and as topical or intralesional treatments are now available with potentially good outcomes, they may be considered as coadjuvants.
Incidence of Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans in Boys Younger than 10 Years Presenting with Phimosis
TLDR
The incidence of BXO appears to be higher than previously reported, and the clinical appearance in children may be confusing.
Balanitis xerotica obliterans in boys.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that older patients, those with BXO involvement of the meatus and those with a history of surgery for BxO tend to have a more severe and morbid clinical course.
[Topical therapy of balanitis xerotica obliterans in childhood. Long-term clinical results and an overview].
TLDR
It is considered that a topical anti-inflammatory therapy is always indicated after any type of surgery for BXO, and the use of tacrolimus ointment is a safe therapy with no severe side effects.
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References

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Treatment of Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans with Hydrocortisone Injections*
TLDR
The condition appears to be more common than was formerly supposed and frequently presents in two ways; there may be plaques of white sclerotic tissue on the glans penis or on the prepuce with telangiectases, and, in the past few years, attention has been drawn to this condition as it affects the male genitalia.
Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans
TLDR
From what I have seen of the histology of periarteritis nodosa, I think that other inflammatory conditions can produce vascular lesions which may be attributed to this rare and obscure disease.
Balanitis xerotica obliterans in children.
TLDR
Four pediatric cases are presented, including the first case of balanitis xerotica obiterans invloving the glans penis and urethral meatus in a child, and the suggested method of treatment is surgical extirpation of the lesion when possible, wedge meatotomy when needed and sublesional corticosteroids if the lesions cannot be completely excised.
Composition of the inflammatory infiltrate in pediatric penile lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (balanitis xerotica obliterans): a prospective, comparative immunophenotyping study.
TLDR
It is concluded that limited immunophenotyping may be a useful adjunct to diagnosis in pediatric cases in which only limited tissue is available or the disease may be more difficult to classify with confidence.
The treatment of balanitis xerotica obliterans with testosterone propionate ointment.
TLDR
Clinically and histopathologically Balanitis xerotica obliterans and kraurosis penis probably represent the same disease process as lichen sclerosus et atrophicus but also involve the urethral mucosa.
The treatment of balanitis xerotica obliterans with testosterone propionate ointment.
TLDR
Clinically and histopathologically Balanitis xerotica obliterans and kraurosis penis probably represent the same disease process as lichen sclerosus et atrophicus but also involve the urethral mucosa.
Carcinoma of the penis in lichen sclerosus atrophicus. A case report.
Three cases of glans penis epidermoid carcinoma after lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA) or balanitis xerotica obliterans are discussed. Relationships between both diseases are analyzed but remain
Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus causing phimosis in boys: a prospective study with 5-year followup after complete circumcision.
TLDR
This study represents the first evidence that the development of secondary phimosis with no apparent reason in school-age boys is highly suggestive for lichen sclerosus et atrophicus.
A study of clinical and aetiological factors and possible associations of lichen sclerosus in males
TLDR
The findings indicate that lichen sclerosus in males exists as a spectrum of disease, ranging from a mild form with white plaques and few symptoms to a severe form with inflammation, atrophy and scarring with possible urological consequences.
Balanitis xerotica obliterans in children.
TLDR
The frequency of balanitis xerotica obliterans in children at the center, as well as the findings of other authors, suggests that possibly more cases would be diagnosed during infancy if all dried foreskin were examined systematically.
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