The transition from diffuse to focused extension: Modeled evolution of the West Antarctic Rift system

Abstract

Two distinct stages of extension are recognized in the West Antarctic Rift system (WARS). During the first stage, beginning in the Late Cretaceous, extension was broadly distributed throughout much of West Antarctica. A second stage of extension in the late Paleogene was focused primarily in the Victoria Land Basin, near the boundary with the East Antarctic craton. The transition to focused extension was roughly coeval with volcanic activity and strike–slip faulting in the adjacent Transantarctic Mountains. This spatial and temporal correspondence suggests that the transition in extensional style could be the result of a change in plate motions or impingement of a plume. Here we use finite element models to study the processes and conditions responsible for the two-stage evolution of rifting in the WARS. Model results indicate that the transition from a prolonged period of broadly distributed extension to a later period of focused rifting did not require a change in the regional stress regime (changes in plate motion), or deep mantle thermal state (impingement of a plume). Instead, we attribute the transition from diffuse to focused extension to an early stage dominated by the initially weak accreted lithosphere of West Antarctica, and a later stage that concentrated around a secondary weakness located at the boundary between the juvenile West Antarctica lithosphere and Precambrian East Antarctic craton. The modeled transition in extension from the initially weak West Antarctica region to the secondary weakness at the West Antarctic–East Antarctic boundary is precipitated by strengthening of the West Antarctica lithosphere during syn-extensional thinning and cooling. The modeled synextensional strengthening of the WARS lithosphere promotes a wide-rift mode of extension between 105 and ∼65 Ma. By ∼65 Ma most of the extending WARS region becomes stronger than the area immediately adjacent to the East Antarctic craton and extension becomes concentrated near the East Antarctic/West Antarctic boundary, forming the Victoria Land Basin region. Mantle necking in this region leads to syn-extensional weakening that promotes a narrow-rift mode of extension that becomes progressively more focused with time, resulting in formation of the Terror Rift in the western Victoria Land Basin. The geodynamic models demonstrate that the transition from diffuse to focused extension occurs only under a limited set of initial and boundary conditions, and is particularly sensitive to the pre-rift thermal state of the crust and upper mantle. Models that predict diffuse extension in West Antarctica followed by localization of rifting near the boundary between East and West Antarctica require upper mantle temperatures of 730±50 °C and sufficient concentration of heat producing elements in the crust to account for ∼50% of the upper mantle temperature. Models with upper mantle temperatures bca. 680 °C and/or less crustal heat production initially undergo diffuse extension in West Antarctica, and quickly develop a lithospheric neck at the model edge furthest from East Earth and Planetary Science Letters 255 (2007) 133–147 www.elsevier.com/locate/epsl ⁎ Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 814 863 3419; fax: +1 814 863 8724. E-mail addresses: ahuerta@geosc.psu.edu (A.D. Huerta), dharry@cnr.colostate.edu (D.L. Harry). 0012-821X/$ see front matter © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.12.011 Antarctica. Models with upper mantle temperatures Nca. 780 °C do not develop focused rifts, and predict indefinite diffuse extension in West Antarctica. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Cite this paper

@inproceedings{Huerta2007TheTF, title={The transition from diffuse to focused extension: Modeled evolution of the West Antarctic Rift system}, author={Audrey D. Huerta and Dennis L. Harry}, year={2007} }