The transforming growth factor-beta-Smad3/4 signaling pathway acts as a positive regulator for TLR2 induction by bacteria via a dual mechanism involving functional cooperation with NF-kappaB and MAPK phosphatase 1-dependent negative cross-talk with p38 MAPK.

@article{Mikami2006TheTG,
  title={The transforming growth factor-beta-Smad3/4 signaling pathway acts as a positive regulator for TLR2 induction by bacteria via a dual mechanism involving functional cooperation with NF-kappaB and MAPK phosphatase 1-dependent negative cross-talk with p38 MAPK.},
  author={Fumi Mikami and Jae Hyang Lim and Hajime Ishinaga and U H Ha and He Gu and Tomoaki Koga and Hirofumi Jono and Hirofumi Kai and Jian-Dong Li},
  journal={The Journal of biological chemistry},
  year={2006},
  volume={281 31},
  pages={22397-408}
}
The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) pathway represents an important signaling pathway involved in the regulation of diverse biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Despite the known role of TGF-betaR-mediated signaling in suppressing immune response, its role in regulating human Toll-like receptors (TLRs), key host defense receptors that recognize invading bacterial pathogens, however, remains unknown. Here, we show for the first time that… CONTINUE READING
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