Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Binding Protein (LBP) is an acute phase protein with the ability to recognize bacterial LPS and transport it to the CD14 molecule or into HDL particles. It is synthesized in hepatocytes and secreted into the blood stream. LBP levels significantly rise during the acute phase response and levels of LBP may be important for an appropriate host reaction to bacterial challenge and for developing the sepsis syndrome. In order to elucidate the mechanisms of LBP regulation we investigated its transcription pattern and performed promoter studies under experimental conditions mimicking an acute phase scenario. In human hepatoma cell lines stimulation with IL-1 beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha and dexamethasone leads to strong transcriptional activation of the LBP gene in a dose- and time-dependent manner. IL-6 alone induces LBP significantly, whereas IL-1 beta mainly increases the IL-6 effect when applied in combination. Our results furthermore show that AP-1 and C/EBP beta are transcription factors involved in the activation of the LBP gene, as revealed by Luciferase reporter gene analysis and electromobility shift assays. Elucidating the mechanism of transcriptional activation of LBP potentially may help in understanding host-pathogen response patterns and mechanisms involved in the acute phase reaction and in the pathophysiology of sepsis.