The trail of chromium(III) in vivo from the blood to the urine: the roles of transferrin and chromodulin

  title={The trail of chromium(III) in vivo from the blood to the urine: the roles of transferrin and chromodulin},
  author={Buffie J. Clodfelder and Juliet A Emamaullee and Dion D. D. Hepburn and Nicole E. Chakov and Heather S. Nettles and John B. Vincent},
  journal={JBIC Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry},
The chromium-binding oligopeptide chromodulin (also known as low-molecular-weight chromium-binding substance) has been shown to activate the tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor in response to insulin and has been proposed to be part of a novel autoamplification mechanism for insulin signaling. The model requires that Cr3+ be moved from the blood to insulin-sensitive tissues in response to insulin and subsequently be lost in the urine as chromodulin; however, the model has not been… 
The time-dependent transport of chromium in adult rats from the bloodstream to the urine
A clear pathway of transport of Cr is established starting from transport by transferrin from the bloodstream into the tissues, followed by release and processing in the tissues to form chromodulin, excretion into the bloodstream, rapid clearance ofchromodulin or a similar species into the urine, and ultimately excretion as this species.
Recent advances in the biochemistry of chromium(III)
A mechanism for the action of chromodulin has recently been proposed and can serve as a potential framework for further studies to test the role of chromium in metabolism, as the molecule has been found to bind to activated insulin receptor, stimulating its kinase activity.
The absorption and transport of chromium in the body
Chromium: Biological Relevance
The biochemistry of CrIII has been a poorly understood field of endeavor; studies of the biochemistry of none of the other transition metals have been as problematic. Despite four decades of
In vivo distribution of chromium from chromium picolinate in rats and implications for the safety of the dietary supplement.
The tissue distribution, urinary and fecal loss, and subcellular hepatocyte distribution and concentration of the labels suggest that [Cr(pic)(3)] has a lifetime of less than 1 day in vivo, minimizing the potential threat from the supplement itself.