The toxicology of chromium with respect to its chemical speciation: A review

@article{Katz1993TheTO,
  title={The toxicology of chromium with respect to its chemical speciation: A review},
  author={Sidney A. Katz and Harry Salem},
  journal={Journal of Applied Toxicology},
  year={1993},
  volume={13}
}
  • S. Katz, H. Salem
  • Published 1 May 1993
  • Chemistry
  • Journal of Applied Toxicology
The properties of trivalent and hexavalent chromium are reviewed with respect to acute and chronic oral toxicity, dermal toxicity, systemic toxicity, toxicokinetics, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. The hexavalent chromium compounds appear to be 10–100 times more toxic than the trivalent chromium compounds when both are administered by the oral route. Dermal irritancy and allergy are more frequently caused by contact with soluble hexavalent chromium compounds. The cytotoxicity of… 
Chromium absorption, safety, and toxicity†
TLDR
Despite the general assumption of safety of trivalent Cr, the widespread use of Cr supplements, particularly by diabetic patients, warrants more extensive monitoring of safety for long-term use.
The safety and efficacy of high-dose chromium.
TLDR
Chromium supplementation does result in tissue retention, especially in the kidney, although no pathogenic effect has been demonstrated despite considerable study, and the mechanism of low molecular weight chromium binding substance in up-regulating the insulin effect eight-fold is discussed.
Dermatologic Toxicities and Biological Activities of Chromium
TLDR
In this chapter, toxicity and biological activity of several chromium species, such as chromium zero-valent, triValent, hexavalent, will be reviewed to obtain better comprehension in chromium toxicity.
Effects of metal compounds with distinct physicochemical properties on iron homeostasis and antibacterial activity in the lungs: chromium and vanadium
TLDR
The findings contribute to a better understanding of the role that metal compound properties play in respiratory disease pathogenesis and provide a rationale for differing pulmonary immunotoxicities of commonly encountered ambient metal pollutants.
Chromium in Environment, Its Toxic Effect from Chromite-Mining and Ferrochrome Industries, and Its Possible Bioremediation
Chromium has long been recognized as a toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic metal. It is toxic to microorganism, plants, animals and humans. Chromium exists in environment in two stable forms: Cr(VI)
Hexavalent Chromium Reduction in Soils Contaminated with Chromated Copper Arsenate Preservative
The toxicity and mobility of chromium in the environment greatly depends upon its speciation. The reduction of hexavalent chromium to trivalent chromium in a soil environment was examined by spiking
The Safety and Efficacy of High-Dose Chromium Davis
TLDR
There is evidence of hormonal effects of supplemental chromium besides the effect on insulin, and chromium supplementation does result in tissue retention, especially in the kidney, although no pathogenic effect has been demonstrated despite considerable study.
Mechanisms of bacterial resistance to chromium compounds
TLDR
Several examples of bacterial systems protecting from the oxidative stress caused by chromate have been described, and mechanisms of bacterial resistance to chromate involve the expression of components of the machinery for repair of DNA damage, and systems related to the homeostasis of iron and sulfur.
Physiological and toxicological changes in the skin resulting from the action and interaction of metal ions.
TLDR
Evidence presented shows that the balance of trace metal ions is critical for normal skin and repair mechanisms following injury, and xenobiotic ions can impair this balance, leading to pathological change.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 59 REFERENCES
Effects of hexavalent and trivalent chromium compounds on the skin.
TLDR
The findings support the observations reported by leather chemists, and the capacity of human sweat to extract chromium from chrome-tanned leathers is demonstrated, as shown by polarographic studies.
Biochemical speciation in chromium genotoxicity
TLDR
The DNA‐protein crosslinks and DNA strand breaks observed in rat liver and kidney after chromate administration are also found in vitro, when Cr(III) compounds (but not chromate) interacts with isolated nuclei.
Role of valence state and solubility of chromium compounds on induction of cytotoxicity, mutagenesis, and anchorage independence in diploid human fibroblasts.
TLDR
Bothchromium(VI) and chromium(III) compounds induced genotoxic effects in human fibroblasts and mutagenicity, and both induced AI and mutation to 6-thioguanine resistance at cytotoxic concentrations in HFC.
Metabolic fate of chromium compounds. I. Comparative behavior of chromium in rat administered with Na251CrO4 and 51CrCl3.
TLDR
Comparative metabolic fate of labelled chromium chloride and sodium chromate and interaction of these compounds in the rat liver and blood were investigated after their oral and intravenous administration, and a significant difference was shown between oxidation states of the two compounds.
Toxicokinetics of hexavalent chromium in the rat after intratracheal administration of chromates of different solubilities.
TLDR
It is concluded that chromium levels in blood and urine are not indicative of exposure to insoluble chromates via the inhalatory route, and absorbed chromium was retained in the spleen and the bone marrow.
Experimental bases for ascorbic acid therapy of poisoning by hexavalent chromium compounds
TLDR
The effectiveness of ascorbic acid for the treatment of Cr(VI) poisoning is increased and accelerated by AA and the resulting Cr(III)-protein complexes are non-toxic and can be excreted with the urine.
Proceedings: Carcinogenic and mutagenic activity of chromium containing materials.
TLDR
The concept of DNA reaction and hence the relationship between mutagenesis and car-cinogenesis has proved a valuable stimulus for further investigation and the correlation of mutagenicity and carcinogenicity is now impressive.
On the biological half-time of hexavalent chromium in rats.
In this 30-day study, the distribution and excretion, and the biological half-time (B.H.T.) of chromium in selected organs of the rat were studied and the results obtained showed a characteristic
...
...