The totalitarian ego: Fabrication and revision of personal history.

  title={The totalitarian ego: Fabrication and revision of personal history.},
  author={Anthony G Greenwald},
  journal={American Psychologist},
  • A. Greenwald
  • Published 1 July 1980
  • Psychology
  • American Psychologist
This article argues that (a) ego, or self, is an organization of knowledge, (b) ego is characterized by cognitive biases strikingly analogous to totalitarian information-control strategies, and (c) these totalitarian-ego biases junction to preserve organization in cognitive structures. Ego's cognitive biases are egocentricity (self as the focus of knowledge), "beneffectance" (perception of responsibility for desired, but not undesired, outcomes), and cognitive conservatism (resistance to… 
The roles that totalitarian egos play in political systems are examined.' Persons who have totalitarian ego biases function more effectively than do those who lack them. The biases are (1)
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  • D. Bem
  • Psychology
    Psychological review
  • 1967
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