The tonic immobility reaction in chickens: Response characteristics and methodology

  title={The tonic immobility reaction in chickens: Response characteristics and methodology},
  author={Gordon G. Jr. Gallup and Richard F. Nash and Alan M. Wagner},
  journal={Behavior Research Methods \& Instrumentation},
A total of 379 chickens were run in five studies to assess the effect of different procedures on tonic immobility and to measure some of the response components of the reaction. The optimal period of manual restraint, by way of producing the most durable immobility response, was found to be 15 sec, and pretest holding conditions were shown to exert a significant influence on the reaction in naive birds. Birds who defecated during immobility or shortly after termination, remained immobile longer… 

Habituation and Tonic Immobility in Chickens: Strain Comparisons

Retention of habituation of immobility in White Leghorns was explored in a second experiment and was found to replicate the lack of spontaneous recovery noted in other research with Production Reds.

Habituation and tonic immobility in domestic chickens.

  • R. NashG. Gallup
  • Psychology, Biology
    Journal of comparative and physiological psychology
  • 1976
It was shown that repeated elicitation of immobility, and not just handling, was responsible for reduced response durations after multiple exposures to manual restraint, and habituation was a function of the number of stimulus presentations.

Strain differences among chickens in tonic immobility: evidence for an emotionality component.

It was argued that defecation, rather than being an absolute measure of fear or emotionality, may in fact be an intermediate response to gradual fear reduction.

The Immobility Response: A Predator-Induced Reaction in Chickens

Chickens restrained in the presence of a stuffed hawk remained immobile appreciably longer than controls. The extent to which the hawk influenced susceptibility to immobility also varied as a

Duration of Tonic Immobility In Lizards (Anolis Carolinensis) as a Function of Repeated Immobilization, Frequent Handling, and Laboratory Maintenance

It is demonstrated that anoles maintained in a group-living situation, with some daily exposure to humans, also show reliable decrements in duration of immobility.

Tonic immobility in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus)

It was found that either the occurrence of a loud noise immediately before induction or the presence of a stuffed Cooper's hawk increased the duration of immobility in some subjects, and the belief that tonic Immobility evolved as a predator defense in squirrel monkeys or one of their ancestors is supported.

Environmental Influences on Tonic Immobility in Three- and Seven-Day-Old Chicks (Gallus gallus)

Tonic immobility was induced in 3- and 7-day-old chicks by a ventral restraint procedure in the presence of familiar or unfamiliar geometric shapes or blank test box walls. Older chicks exhibited

Effect of food deprivation and a visual cliff on tonic immobility

Contrary to the contention that generalized arousal is the common denominator of situations designed to enhance tonic immobility, the effect of food deprivation on immobility time and ease of

Tonic immobility in chickens: Is a stimulus that signals shock more aversive than the receipt of shock?

The data were discussed in terms of the fear hypothesis of animal hypnosis and as supporting a more general notion that the anticipation of shock may be more aversive than the receipt of shock.

Tonic immobility in chickens: possible involvement of monoamines.

The data appear to implicate monoamines, especially serotonin, in the mediation of behavioral activation and suppression in chickens, and suggest drug-induced suppression of raphe electrical activity.



Tonic immobility as a reaction to predation: Artificial eyes as a fear stimulus for chickens

Young habituated chickens exposed to artificial eyes suspended overhead remained immobile in response to manual restraint appreciably longer than did controls and were more susceptible to immobility.

Shock-Enhanced Immobility Reactions in Chickens: Support for the Fear Hypothesis

Animals receiving pre-induction shock remained immobile appreciably longer than Ss given no shock, supporting the notion that fear is what underlies hypnotic or immobility reactions in animals.

The Role of Emotional Stress in the Hypnotization of Animals and Man

The researchers who, three centuries ago, applied the term “hypnosis” to catalepsy in animals most probably did so because of the similar appearance of these two conditions. From the results of

Animal hypnosis: a study in the induction of tonic immobility in chickens.

Animal hypnosis : A stu d yin the induction of tonic immobility in animals

  • Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology .
  • 1970